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Table 3 Modified Poisson regression- association between fighting-related injury and individual and area-level family affluence by sex

From: Physical fighting, fighting-related injuries and family affluence among Canadian youth

  Bivariate model Multivariate modela,b
  Male Female Male Female
  RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value
Self-perceived affluence         
Low 1.64 (1.07–2.49) 0.022 4.03 (2.34–6.94) <0.001 1.07 (0.67–1.73) 0.775 2.94 (1.69–5.11) <0.001
Moderate 1.51 (1.19–1.92) 0.001 2.14 (1.36–3.36) 0.001 1.32 (0.98–1.77) 0.063 1.74 (1.07–2.83) 0.024
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Family affluence scale         
Low 3.47 (2.05–5.87) <0.001 1.50 (0.56–4.02) 0.424 2.10 (1.23–3.58) 0.006 1.34 (0.54–3.38) 0.528
Moderate 0.88 (0.68–1.15) 0.362 1.24 (0.90–1.70) 0.193 0.83 (0.62–1.13) 0.240 1.14 (0.81–1.60) 0.462
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Average household income         
Low 1.08 (0.75–1.55) 0.677 2.00 (1.07–3.73) 0.030 0.82 (0.55–1.22) 0.335 1.51 (0.77–2.97) 0.229
Moderate 1.13 (0.82–1.57) 0.450 1.66 (0.92–2.99) 0.094 1.02 (0.71–1.48) 0.903 1.62 (0.81–3.23 0.172
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Sub-cohort analysisc Bivariate model Multivariate modelb,d
  RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value
Self-perceived affluence         
Low 1.64 (0.91–2.95) 0.102 4.10 (1.77–9.53) 0.001 1.28 (0.66–2.47) 0.469 2.79 (1.12–6.91) 0.027
Moderate 1.32 (0.93–1.87) 0.126 2.25 (1.12–4.51) 0.023 1.33 (0.83–2.13) 0.233 1.76 (0.84–3.68) 0.133
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Family affluence scale         
Low 3.68 (1.75–7.74) <0.001 0.78 (0.20–3.03) 0.719 1.74 (0.85–3.57) 0.129 0.80 (0.22–2.93) 0.734
Moderate 0.67 (0.45–1.01) 0.057 1.31 (0.81–2.11) 0.271 0.55 (0.32–0.94) 0.030 1.13 (0.68–1.87) 0.634
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
Average household income         
Low 1.16 (0.68–1.98) 0.581 1.33 (0.67–2.65) 0.413 1.20 (0.72–1.99) 0.489 1.12 (0.51–2.44) 0.778
Moderate 1.42 (0.90–2.24) 0.133 1.38 (0.68–2.81) 0.377 1.61 (0.97–2.69) 0.068 1.52 (0.67–3.49) 0.319
High 1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)   1.00 (Ref)  
  1. aMultivariate regression analysis adjusted for sex, age, respectful students, alcohol use, happy home life, and sport team. P(interaction) = 0.027 for self-perceived affluence, P = 0.290 for family affluence scale, and P = 0.172 for area-level income. bAll multivariate model adjusted using backwards elimination with a criteria of p < 0.15. cA sub-cohort of 10,429 grade 9–10 students was analyzed to account for confounders only available in the grade 9 and 10 version of the HBSC survey. dMultivariate regression analysis for Grade 9 and 10 HBSC survey only and adjusted for sex, age, academic performance, respectful students, alcohol use, marijuana use, and happy home life. P(interaction) = 0.385 for self-perceived affluence, P = 0.085 for FAS, and P = 0.989