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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression model of the association between BMI and health literacy

From: Health literacy and the determinants of obesity: a population-based survey of sixth grade school children in Taiwan

Characteristics Relative Risk Ratio 95 % CI Robust Std. Err. z P > |z|
Underweight Group (Ref: Normal Group)      
 Sex (Ref: Girl)      
  Boy 0.87 (0.84–0.90) 0.02 −7.77 <0.001
 Ethnicity (Ref: Hakka, Taiwanese, and Chinese)      
  Indigenous 0.73 (0.66–0.81) 0.04 −6.06 <0.001
  Immigrants 1.12 (1.00–1.26) 0.07 1.90 0.06
  Others/Unknown/Uncertain 1.07 (1.03–1.11) 0.02 3.81 <0.001
 Health literacy (quartile) (Ref: Lowest 20 %)      
  25th to 50th percentile (22–26) 0.88 (0.85–0.92) 0.02 −5.53 <0.001
  50th to 75th percentile (27-29) 0.83 (0.79–0.87) 0.02 −7.98 <0.001
  Highest 25 % (30–32) 0.83 (0.79–0.87) 0.02 −6.96 <0.001
 Self-rated health status (Ref: Bad or very bad)      
  Normal 0.53 (0.49–0.58) 0.02 −16.23 <0.001
  Good 0.43 (0.39–0.46) 0.02 −21.41 <0.001
  Very Good 0.46 (0.43–0.50) 0.02 −19.11 <0.001
 Health behaviors (Ref: Regular physical activity and no SSB intake)      
  Had only one of the healthy behaviors (either regular physical  activity or no SSB intake) 1.05 (1.01–1.09) 0.02 2.75 0.01
  Had no regular physical activity and consumed SSB 0.99 (0.93–1.05) 0.03 −0.33 0.74
Overweight Group (Ref: Normal Group)      
 Sex (Ref: Girl)      
  Boy 1.49 (1.45–1.53) 0.02 30.73 <0.001
 Ethnicity (Ref: Hakka, Taiwanese, and Chinese)      
  Indigenous 1.24 (1.17–1.32) 0.04 6.88 <0.001
  Immigrants 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 0.05 0.65 0.51
  Others/Unknown/Uncertain 0.98 (0.95–1.00) 0.01 −1.69 0.09
 Health literacy (quartile) (Ref: Lowest 25 %)      
  25th to 50th percentile (22–26) 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.02 0.50 0.62
  50th to 75th percentile (27–29) 1.03 (0.99–1.06) 0.02 1.59 0.11
  Highest 25 % (30–32) 1.07 (1.02–1.11) 0.02 3.16 <0.001
 Self-rated health status (Ref: Bad or very bad)      
  Normal 0.55 (0.52–0.58) 0.02 −19.66 <0.001
  Good 0.41 (0.39–0.44) 0.01 −28.45 <0.001
  Very Good 0.43 (0.41–0.46) 0.01 −26.63 <0.001
 Health behaviors (Ref: Regular physical activity and no SSB intake)      
  Had only one of the healthy behaviors (either regular physical  activity or no SSB intake) 1.12 (1.09–1.15) 0.01 8.41 <0.001
  Had no regular physical activity and consumed SSB 1.10 (1.05–1.15) 0.02 4.33 <0.001
Obese Group (Ref: Normal Group)      
 Sex (Ref: Girl)      
  Boy 3.02 (2.92–3.12) 0.05 65.71 <0.001
 Ethnicity (Ref: Hakka, Taiwanese, and Chinese)      
  Indigenous 1.32 (1.22–1.42) 0.05 7.06 <0.001
  Immigrants 1.03 (0.93–1.15) 0.06 0.64 0.52
  Others/Unknown/Uncertain 0.89 (0.87–0.92) 0.01 −6.65 <0.001
 Health literacy (quartile) (Ref: Lowest 25 %)      
  25th to 50th percentile (22–26) 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 0.02 1.31 0.19
  50th to 75th percentile (27–29) 1.01 (0.97–1.06) 0.02 0.67 0.50
  Highest 25 % (30–32) 0.94 (0.89–0.99) 0.02 −2.52 0.01
 Self-rated health status (Ref: Bad or very bad)      
  Normal 0.22 (0.21–0.24) 0.01 −50.13 <0.001
  Good 0.11 (0.10–0.12) 0.00 −68.85 <0.001
  Very Good 0.12 (0.11–0.13) 0.00 −66.38 <0.001
 Health behaviors (Ref: Regular physical activity and no SSB intake)      
  Had only one of the healthy behaviors (either regular physical  activity or no SSB intake) 1.27 (1.23–1.31) 0.02 14.11 <0.001
  Had no regular physical activity and consumed SSB 1.31 (1.24–1.38) 0.03 10.20 <0.001