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Table 3 Adjusted prevalence ratios derived from logistic regression for high levels of depressive symptoms, MA use and covariates to describe odds of high levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents and young adults who use MA in northern rural Thailand

From: Methamphetamine use is associated with high levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults in Rural Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

  Adjusted prevalence odds ratioa Confidence intervals Ρ-value
Lifetime MA Risk Behavior (N = 2054)
 Lifetime MA use 1.61 0.98–2.64 0.06
 Lifetime polydrug use N = 2054 1.45 0.87–2.43 0.16
 Lifetime alcohol consumption 0.82 0.55–1.23 0.33
 Gender 2.63 1.82–3.80 <0.001
 Age 1.16 0.75–1.77 0.49
 Current school attendance 1.35 0.92–1.99 0.13
Recent MA Risk Behavior (n = 266)
 Recent MA use 2.60 1.20–5.63 <0.05
 Recent polydrug use 0.53 0.17–1.67 0.23
 Recent alcohol consumption 0.85 0.26–2.75 0.79
 Gender 3.31 1.28–8.55 <0.05
 Age 0.93 0.30–2.87 0.90
 Current school attendance 1.19 0.43–3.33 0.74
  1. CES-D denotes the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Radloff [15])
  2. aAdjusted for gender, age, current school attendance, lifetime or recent polydrug use of any illicit drug other than MA use within the past 3 months, and lifetime or recent alcohol consumption of any beverage within the past 30 days. Reported measures of lifetime alcohol and polydrug use are included in regression models assessing the relationship between lifetime MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms. Recent alcohol consumption and polydrug use are included in regression models assessing the association between recent MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms. Polydrug use defined as reported use of one or more of the following: ice, heroin, opium, valium, domicum, barbiturates, marijuana, ketamine, glue and kratom