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Table 2 Comparison of biochemical profiles among the male Orang Asli and male Urban Malays

From: Increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

Biochemical profiles Asian Reference range Orang Asli (male)   CV
  Inland Periphery  
  Semai (n = 19) Bateq (n = 23) Lanoh (n = 15) Kanaq (n = 2) Kensiu (n = 17) Che Wong (n = 9) Malay (n = 26)
Lipid profile  
   TC, mmol/La Mean (SD) 3.95 (0.96) 4.09 (0.73) 5.13 (1.12)c,d 3.45 (0.21) 4.59 (0.90) 5.01 (1.22) 5.59 (0.88)c,d,g,h 0.81
   % of the subjects >5.2 5.26 4.35 46.67 0 35.29 55.56 69.23
   HDL-C, mmol/La Mean (SD) 0.99 (0.18) 1.14 (0.23) 1.18 (0.37) 0.70 (0.00)c,d,h,i 1.18 (0.45) 1.00 (0.51) 1.48 (0.29)c,d,g 1.13
   % of the subjects <1.0 31.50 21.74 40.00 100 29.41 55.56 0
   LDL-C, mmol/La Mean (SD) 2.34 (0.85) 2.52 (0.63) 3.25 (0.90)c 2.15 (0.35) 2.88 (0.95) 3.29 (1.19) 3.67 (0.81)c,d 1.10
   % of the subjects >4.1 (very high risk) 0 0 20.00 0 11.76 22.22 34.62  
<4.1 (high risk) 15.79 8.70 13.33 0 23.53 33.33 23.08
<3.4 (moderate) 21.05 39.13 46.67 0 29.41 33.33 34.62
<2.6 (low risk) 63.16 52.17 20.00 100 35.29 11.11 7.69
   TG, mmol/La Mean (SD) 1.36 (0.96) 0.91 (0.36) 1.61 (0.82)d 1.15 (0.21) 1.17 (0.50) 1.59 (0.82) 1.00 (0.34) 1.60
   % of the subjects >1.7 26.32 8.70 33.33 0 11.76 33.33 7.69
Endocrine tests  
   FBG, mmol/Lb Mean (SD) 5.05 (1.00) 5.10 (0.80) 5.70 (3.00)c,d 5.85 (0.00) 5.80 (2.40)c 5.30 (0.80) 4.90 (0.50)h,i 0.38
   % of the subjects 3.5–6.0 (normal) 88.89 86.36 50.00 100 53.33 88.89 96.00
6.1–6.9 (IFG) 11.11 9.09 21.43 0 20.00 11.11 4.00
>7.0 (DM) 0 4.55 28.57 0 26.67 0 0
   HbAlc, %b Mean (SD) 5.20 (0.50) 5.30 (0.40) 5.45 (0.60) - 5.2 5.20 (0.60) 5.40 (0.40) 0.80
   % of the subjects <4.8 5.26 0 7.14 - 0 11.11 11.54
4.8–5.9 94.74 100.00 78.57 - 100.00 88.89 88.46
  >5.9 0 0 14.29 - 0 0 0  
   Insulin, pmol/La Mean (SD) 91.57 (86.82) 95.89 (88.44) 176.95 (220.37) 17.7 (4.67)e,i 98.06 (102.28) 140.88 (111.56) 66.54 (83.29) 1.70
   % of the subjects <17.8 15.79 0 0 50.00 5.88 0 3.85
17.8–173.0 68.42 73.91 80.00 50.00 82.35 55.56 92.31
>173.0 15.79 26.09 20.00 0 11.76 44.44 3.85
   hs-CRP, nmol/La Mean (SD) 10.55 (10.72) 21.28 (23.87) 28.02 (36.90) 28.10 (24.89) 8.81 (17.51)d,i 10.24 (15.42) 16.38 (21.26) 0.60
   % of the subjects <9.5 (low risk) 68.42 39.13 46.67 0 82.35 66.67 61.54
9.5–28.6 (moderate) 21.05 39.13 26.67 50.00 5.88 22.22 15.38
>28.6 (high risk) 10.53 21.74 26.67 50.00 11.76 11.11 23.08
Renal profile  
   Urea, mmol/La <8.3 4.00 (1.51) 4.07 (1.18) 3.35 (0.89) 6.55 (3.75) 2.92 (1.32) 3.24 (106) 4.28 (0.58)h 2.30
   Creatinine, mol/La <106 83.68 (10.57) 82.00 (7.56) 79.07 (18.12) 148.50 (86.97) 74.65 (16.54) 61.11 (11.58)c,d 90.56 (12.48)e 3.10
   Sodium, mmol/La 136.0–145.0 140.33 (1.41) 137.74 (1.57)c 136.47 (2.70)c,e 139.00 (0.00) 138.38 (2.79) 139.50 (195) 137.78 (1.56)c 0.24
   Potassium, nmol/La 3.5–5.1 4.26 (0.38) 3.91 (0.28)c 3.75 (0.30)c 4.30 (0.14) 4.72 (0.48)c 4.33 (0.42)h,i 4.77 (0.62)d,h,i 0.44
Liver function tests  
   Albumin, g/Lb 35.0–52.0 45.60 (4.40) 47.40 (3.00)c 48.50 (5.70)c 43.80 (0.00) 45.90 (4.00)i 46.60 (5.70) 50.40 (3.10)c,d,g,h 1.90
   Total protein, g/La 66.0–87.0 73.98 (3.28) 77.30 (4.13) 79.21 (7.09) 71.90 (2.55) 75.40 (7.32) 78.80 (6.41) 76.41 (4.10) 1.12
   ALP, U/Lb 40.0–129.0 82.10 (20.40) 91.50 (39.00) 79.70 (47.60) 80.35 (0.00) 102.30 (38.40) 67.00 (14.60)c,d,h 66.20 (17.40)c,d,h,i 1.60
   ALT, U/La <41.0 17.70 (5.94) 15.49 (6.81) 9.50 (4.90)c,d 12.10 (0.42)c 18.90 (10.44)i 27.18 (28.00) 22.47 (12.89)g,i 1.00
   Direct bilirubin, pmol/La <5.1 2.32 (1.27) 3.03 (1.19) 4.03 (1.35)c   1.94 (0.93)d,i 0.96 (0.24)c,d,h,i 3.62 (1.23)c,e,h 6.40
   Total bilirubin, pmol/La <21.0 9.23 (4.16) 8.28 (3.29) 11.25 (4.75)   4.51 (2.73)c,d,i 3.03 (1.43)c,d,i 10.60 (4.50)e,h 0.46
   Ferritin, pmol/La 67.4–898.8 304.16 (212.38) 138.67 (153.18)c 341.41 (343.90) 143.55 (82.94) 113.82 (110.64)c 91.50 (57.19) 340.56 (218.71)d,e,h 1.80
   GGT, U/Lb <60.0 17.50 (11.80) 23.80 (34.00) 23.40 (31.80) 14.15 (0.00) 25.50 (63.30) 17.40 (36.40) 23.95 (17.30) 1.80
  1. SD standard deviation, TC total cholesterol, HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglyceride, FBG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin; hs-CRP, high-sensitive C-reactive protein; ALP, alkaline phosphatase, ALT alanine transaminase, GGT gamma-glutamyltransferase
  2. aExpressed as mean and standard deviation
  3. bExpressed as median and interquartile range due to skewed distribution, and the p-value was based on variance analysis Kruskal Wallis or Mann Whitney test
  4. cp < 0.05 as compared to Semai
  5. dp < 0.05 as compared to Bateq
  6. ep < 0.05 as compared to Che Wong
  7. fp < 0.05 as compared to Malays
  8. gp < 0.05 as compared to Kanaq
  9. hp < 0.05 as compared to Kensiu
  10. ip < 0.05 as compared to Lanoh