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Table 4 Construct validity of the African Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire

From: Validation of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire among African Australian women

   Attitudes towards general health check-ups Knowledge and perceptions about breast cancer Barriers to mammographic screening
Original subscale Psychological barriers Practical barriers
  N (%) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Education level       
 Primary school 20 (7.6) 24.1 (15.9) 25.0 (16.8) 40.3 (17.1) 33.8 (16.3) 50.0 (24.7)
 Secondary school 47 (17.8) 26.9 (19.3) 26.7 (18.6) 51.5 (13.4) 39.9 (16.1) 68.9 (16.5)
 TAFE/college 43 (16.3) 40.1 (22.8) 39.8 (22.8) 55.1 (16.3) 40.4 (21.0) 75.6 (18.5)
 Tertiary or above 154 (58.3) 48.5 (26.5) 54.1 (25.6) 60.8 (15.9) 48.1 (24.0) 79.5 (12.0)
P-value for trend   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.003 <0.001
Breast awareness       
 At least once a month 23 (8.7) 42.7 (33.6) 44.3 (30.3) 63.5 (19.0) 52.2 (26.3) 80.4 (15.5)
 Once every few months 92 (34.8) 42.7 (24.9) 47.2 (28.4) 56.2 (15.2) 40.5 (22.0) 79.1 (10.7)
 Once a year 30 (15.2) 53.8 (23.6) 57.3 (21.3) 61.9 (14.1) 50.0 (23.3) 79.7 (10.5)
 Never 109 (41.3) 35.6 (24.0) 38.0 (23.2) 53.6 (17.6) 43.8 (20.3) 67.9 (21.5)
P-value for trend   0.068 0.032 0.028 0.748 <0.001
Clinical breast examination       
 A year or less 4 (1.5) 71.9 (24.2) 64.6 (12.5) 72.5 (19.4) 66.7 (28.1) 81.3 (16.1)
 More than a year and less than two years 16 (6.1) 35.2 (24.2) 52.0 (28.6) 61.3 (21.2) 47.4 (29.0) 82.0 (11.2)
 Two to three years 27 (10.2) 52.1 (24.4) 53.9 (23.8) 61.1 (13.7) 50.3 (22.5) 77.3 (8.5)
 More than three years 27 (10.2) 51.9 (25.6) 54.2 (26.9) 53.7 (14.9) 38.3 (19.2) 76.9 (17.9)
 Never had one 190 (72.0) 38.3 (25.2) 41.0 (25.7) 55.7 (16.7) 43.6 (21.5) 73.3 (18.3)
P-value for trend   0.020 0.004 0.104 0.203 0.045
Mammogram       
 Once a year 10 (3.8) 58.8 (27.0) 53.1 (26.4) 59.0 (14.1) 37.5 (23.0) 91.3 (11.9)
 Once every two years 113 (42.8) 42.1 (25.3) 42.2 (25.6) 57.4 (14.1) 43.6 (20.7) 78.1 (12.3)
 Once every three years or more 45 (17.0) 46.9 (27.2) 52.5 (26.8) 53.0 (16.1) 38.5 (20.4) 74.7 (18.9)
 Never had one 96 (36.4) 36.3 (24.6) 43.1 (26.2) 57.3 (19.8) 48.9 (24.0) 68.8 (19.7)
P-value for trend   0.041 0.975 0.451 0.412 <0.001
  1. Abbreviation: SD standard deviation