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Table 1 Constructs, features, items and thresholds used to calculate optimal wellbeing

From: Associations between lifestyle behaviours and optimal wellbeing in a diverse sample of New Zealand adults

Construct and features Item (Likert scale; anchors) Threshold
Positive emotion (required)
 • Happiness Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
0–10; extremely unhappy-extremely happy
≥ 8
Positive characteristics (4 of 5 required)
 • Emotional stability In the past week, I felt calm and peaceful
1–4; none or almost none of the time-all or almost all of the time
≥ 2
 • Vitality During the past week, you had a lot of energy?
1–4; none or almost none of the time-all or almost all
≥ 3
 • Optimism I am always optimistic about my future
1–5; strongly disagree-strongly agree
≥ 4
 • Resilience When things go wrong in my life it generally takes me a long time to get back to normal
1–5; strongly disagree-strongly agree; reverse score
≥ 4
 • Self-esteem In general, I feel very positive about myself
1–5; strongly disagree-strongly agree
≥ 4
Positive functioning (3 of 4 required)
 • Engagement To what extent do you learn new things in your life?
0–6; not at all-a great deal
≥ 5
 • Competence Most days I feel a sense of accomplishment from what I do
1–5; strongly disagree-strongly agree
≥ 4
 • Meaning I generally feel that what I do in my life is valuable and worthwhile
1–5; strongly disagree-strongly agree
≥ 4
 • Positive relationships To what extent do you receive help and support from people you are close to when you need it?
0–6; not at all-completely
≥ 4
  1. To be classified as meeting the criteria for optimal wellbeing individuals must (1) meet the threshold for positive emotion; (2) meet the threshold for four out of five features of positive characteristics; and (3) meet the threshold for three out of four features of positive functioning