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Table 7 Association of education with eating behaviors in Japanese men: Unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)

From: Association of household income and education with eating behaviors in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study

Dependent variables|| Independent variables
Education
  Unadjusted§ Trend p-value Adjusted§ Trend p-value
Group OR 95 % CI p-value OR 95 % CI p-value
Taking care of one’s diet for healtha Junior high/high school 1.00 (ref)   <0.001*** 1.00 (ref)   0.001**
2-year college 1.19 0.86–1.64 0.300   1.15 0.83–1.60 0.397  
4-year college/graduate school 1.67 1.31–2.14 <0.001***   1.52 1.18–1.96 0.001**  
Eating vegetablesb Junior high/high school 1.00 (ref)   <0.001*** 1.00 (ref)   <0.001***
2-year college 1.29 0.93–1.79 0.123   1.27 0.91–1.78 0.160  
4-year college/graduate school 1.74 1.36–2.22 <0.001***   1.65 1.27–2.14 <0.001***  
Frequency of eating breakfastc Junior high/high school 1.00 (ref)   0.278 1.00 (ref)   0.247
2-year college 0.90 0.66–1.24 0.528   0.93 0.67–1.28 0.656  
4-year college/graduate school 1.12 0.88–1.42 0.372   1.14 0.88–1.47 0.318  
Frequency of family breakfastsc Junior high/high school 1.00 (ref)   0.717 1.00 (ref)   0.633
2-year college 0.92 0.63–1.34 0.654   0.92 0.62–1.38 0.690  
4-year college/graduate school 1.04 0.78–1.37 0.798   1.06 0.78–1.44 0.714  
Frequency of family dinnersc Junior high/high school 1.00 (ref)   0.038* 1.00 (ref)   0.864
2-year college 0.83 0.60–1.16 0.276   0.97 0.68–1.39 0.880  
4-year college/graduate school 0.77 0.60–0.98 0.036*   0.98 0.74–1.29 0.873  
Using the information on nutrition labelsb Junior high/high school 1.00 (ref)   <0.001*** 1.00 (ref)   0.008**
2-year college 1.08 0.77–1.50 0.654   1.01 0.72–1.42 0.939  
4-year college/graduate school 1.56 1.22–1.99 <0.001***   1.38 1.07–1.78 0.015*  
Conversations with family or friends during mealsb Junior high/high school 1.00 (ref)   <0.001*** 1.00 (ref)   <0.001***
2-year college 1.10 0.77–1.55 0.609   1.02 0.72–1.47 0.898  
4-year college/graduate school 1.77 1.37–2.29 <0.001***   1.59 1.21–2.09 0.001**  
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001
  2. Trend test
  3. The independent variable of education was adjusted for age classification, marital status, residence status, employment status and household income
  4. §OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; ref = referent group
  5. ||As the dependent variable of dietary behaviors, seven items were confirmed the distribution of the answer and categorized in positive answer = 1, negative answer = 0
  6. aResponses were given in six categories: (1) very often; (2) often; (3) sometimes; (4) rarely; (5) almost never; and (6) never. People who answered (1) to (3) to the question were defined as positive answer, (4) to (6) to the question were defined as negative answer
  7. bResponses were in the following four categories: (1) very often; (2) often; (3) not much; and (4) never. People who answered (1) or (2) to the question were defined as positive answer, (3) or (4) to the question were defined as negative answer
  8. cResponses were rated in the following five categories: (1) every day; (2) 4 or 5 days/week; (3) 2 or 3 days/week; (4) 1 day/week; and (5) never. People who answered (1) to the question were defined as positive answer, (2) or (5) to the question were defined as negative answer