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Table 3 Changes in nutrient and food density, baseline to 10 years of follow-up

From: Beneficial changes in food consumption and nutrient intake after 10 years of follow-up in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project

  Baseline 10 years of follow-up Change P value
    Mean (95 % CI)  
N 3036 3036   
Fruits (g/1000 kcal) 128.8 (1.9) 141.5 (1.9) 12.7 (8.7, 16.6) <0.001
Vegetables (g/1000 kcal) 212.3 (2.4) 237.9 (2.3) 25.6 (20.8, 30.5) <0.001
Legumes (g/1000 kcal) 9.8 (0.1) 9.4 (0.1) −0.4 (−0.7, −0.1) 0.01
Dairy products (g/1000 kcal)     
 Low-fat dairy (g/1000 kcal) 80.0 (1.7) 111.6 (2.1) 31.6 (27.2, 36.1) <0.001
 Whole fat dairy (g/1000 kcal) 99.1 (1.5) 56.4 (1.6) −39.2 (−43.5, −34.9) <0.001
Meats (g/1000 kcal) 81.2 (0.5) 77.9 (0.6) −3.3 (−4.7, −2.0) <0.001
 Red (g/1000 kcal) 37.2 (0.4) 31.8 (0.3) −5.4 (−6.3, −4.6) <0.001
 Lean (g/1000 kcal) 19.7 (0.3) 22.9 (0.3) 3.3 (2.6, 3.9) <0.001
Fish (g/1000 kcal) 40.6 (0.4) 43.1 (0.5) 0.5 (1.5, 3.5) <0.001
Whole grains (g/1000 kcal) 4.4 (0.2) 6.9 (0.3) 2.4 (1.8, 3.0) <0.001
Refined grains (g/1000 kcal) 44.5 (0.6) 48.5 (0.5) 3.5 (2.4, 4.7) <0.001
Olive oil (g/1000 kcal) 8.0 (0.1) 8.2 (0.1) 0.2 (−0.01, 0.5) 0.07
Nuts (g/1000 kcal) 2.7 (0.1) 4.2 (0.1) 1.5 (1.3, 1.8) <0. 001
Sugared-sweetened beverages (g/1000 kcal) 21.7 (0.7) 8.9 (0.5) −12.7 (−14.2, −11.3) <0.001
Alcohol (g/1000 kcal) 3.1 (0.1) 3.3 (0.1) 0.2 (0.1, 0.4) 0.001
Wine (g/1000 kcal) 13.1 (0.5) 12.0 (0.5) −1.2 (−2.2, 0.2) 0.02
Zn (mg/1000 kcal) 6.9 (2.9) 8.2 (5.5) 1.3 (1.1, 1.5) <0.001
I (μg/1000 kcal) 143.0 (76.9) 136.0 (84.2) −7.0 (−10.4, −3.7) <0.001
Se (μg/1000 kcal) 42.3 (11.8) 42.6 (12.7) 0.3 (−0.2, 0.8) 0.229
Fe (mg/1000 kcal) 7.3 (1.9) 7.5 (1.7) 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) <0.001
Ca (mg/1000 kcal) 510.7 (197.6) 514.9 (176.5) 4.2 (−2.8, 11.2) 0.241
K (mg/1000 kcal) 1965.0 (458.7) 2042.4 (503.4) 77.4 (59.4, 95.4) <0.001
P (mg/1000 kcal) 821.4 (190.7) 830.8 (178.2) 9.4 (2.6, 16.2) 0.007
Mg (mg/1000 kcal) 172.3 (32.6) 181.7 (35.8) 9.5 (8.2, 10.8) <0.001
Cr (μg/1000 kcal) 38.5 (11.2) 38.5 (12.0) 0.01 (−0.5, 0.5) 0.967
Vitamin B1 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.8 (0.2) 0.8 (0.3) 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) 0.020
Vitamin B2 (mg/1000 kcal) 1.0 (0.2) 1.0 (0.3) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.972
Vitamin B3 (mg/1000 kcal) 18.3 (3.9) 18.5 (4.3) 0.2 (0.03, 0.4) <0.001
Vitamin B6 (mg/1000 kcal) 1.2 (0.3) 1.2 (0.4) 0.08 (0.06, 0.09) <0.001
Vitamin B12 (μg/1000 kcal) 4.2 (2.2) 3.9 (1.9) −0.3 (−0.3, −0.2) <0.001
Vitamin C (mg/1000 kcal) 113.0 (54.4) 122.9 (58.9) 9.8 (7.6, 12.0) <0.001
Vitamin A (μg/1000 kcal) 778.0 (480.1) 844.1 (503.5) 66.2 (43.3, 86.0) <0.001
Vitamin D (μg/1000 kcal) 1.6 (0.02) 1.3 (0.02) −0.004 (−0.05, 0.04) 0.877
Vitamin E (mg/1000 kcal) 3.2 (0.03) 3.1 (0.03) −0.04 (−0.1, 0.02) 0.139
Folic acid (μg/ 1000 kcal) 172.3 (36.8) 187.1 (109.1) 14.9 (10.9, 18.9) <0.001