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Table 2 Changes in consumption and intake [mean (standard deviations)], baseline to 10 years of follow-up

From: Beneficial changes in food consumption and nutrient intake after 10 years of follow-up in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project

  Baseline 10 years of follow-up Mean Change Change P value
    (95 % CI) Percentage  
N 3036 3036    
Fruits (g/d) 284.7 (228.2) 305.8 (242.1) 21.1 (12.2, − 29.9) 7.4 <0.001
Vegetables (g/d) 460.3 (247.3) 500.0 (258.9) 39.7 (30.1, − 493) 8.6 <0.001
Legumes (g/d) 21.5 (15.6) 20.0 (14.7) −1.6 (−2.6, −0.9) −7.4 <0.001
Dairy products      
 Low-fat dairy (g/d) 166.5 (191.5) 225.1 (187.9) 58.6 (50.6, 66.5) 35.2 <0.001
 Whole-fat dairy (g/d) 227.4 (190.4) 126.8 (140.2) −100.6 (−107.4, −93.7) −44.2 <0.001
Meats 180.7 (73.0) 166.9 (73.5) −13.8 (−16.6, −11.0) −7.6 <0.001
 Red (g/d) 82.8 (45.0) 68.2 (40.7) −14.6 (−16.3, −13.0) −17.6 <0.001
 Lean (g/d) 42.6 (28.2) 48.1 (32.1) 5.3 (4.0, 6.6) 12.4 <0.001
Fish (g/d) 87.4 (46.6) 89.9 (50.7) 2.5 (0.6, 4.5) 2.9 0.011
Whole grains (g/d) 9.4 (25.7) 14.5 (32.7) 5.0 (3.7, 6.3) 53.2 <0.001
Refined grains (g/d) 103.4 (69.5) 109.1 (75.2) 5.7 (2.3, 8.8) 5.5 <0.001
Olive oil (g/d) 18.1 (14.4) 18.2 (14.8) 0.1 (−0.5, 0.7) 0.6 0.673
Nuts (g/d) 6.3 (9.3) 9.6 (15.0) 3.3 (2.8, 3.9) 52.4 <0.001
Sugar-sweetened beverages (g/d) 49.1 (89.6) 20.3 (63.4) −28.8 (−32.2, −25.4) −58.7 <0.001
Alcohol (g/d)a 6.9 (9.5) 7.2 (10.4) 0.3 (−0.01, 0.7) 47.8 0.055
Wine (g/d) 29.4 (1.2) 25.9 (1.0) −3.5 (−5.8, −1.2) −11.9 0.003
Energy (kcal) 2257 (583) 2195 (650) −62.0 (−87.0, −37.0) −2.7 <0.001
Total protein (% E) 18.2 (3.0) 18.3 (3.4) 0.1 (−0.1, 0.2) 0.5 0.244
Total CH (% E) 42.0 (6.9) 43.4 (7.4) 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) 3.6 <0.001
Fiber (g/d) 24.3 (9.4) 26.0 (10.7) 1.8 (1.4, 2.2) 7.4 <0.001
Total fat (% E) 37.7 (6.1) 36.0 (6.4) −1.7 (−2.0, −1.5) −4.5 <0.001
SFA (% E) 12.8 (3.0) 11.6 (3.0) −1.2 (−1.3, −1.0) −9.4 <0.001
MUFA (% E) 16.3 (1.6) 15.4 (3.7) −0.8 (−1.0, −0.7) −4.9 <0.001
PUFA (% E) 5.5 (3.5) 4.8 (1.4) −0.7 (−0.7, −0.6) −12.7 <0.001
w-3 fatty acids (%E) 1.1 (0.4) 1.0 (0.4) −0.1 (−0.11, −0.07) −9.1 <0.001
w-6 fatty acids (%E) 7.8 (4.4) 6.2 (3.3) −1.6 (−1.8, −1.5) −20.5 <0.001
Cholesterol (mg/d) 410.9 (132.4) 371.6 (128.1) −39.3 (−44.6, −34.0) −9.6 <0.001
  1. aAmong drinkers