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Table 1 Association between malted drink consumption (g/day) and related characteristics among Malaysian primary school children

From: Characteristics associated with the consumption of malted drinks among Malaysian primary school children: findings from the MyBreakfast study

  6–9 years old 10–12 years old   Total
Variables Consumers Non-Consumers    Consumers Non-Consumers    Consumers Non-Consumers   
  n (%) n (%) χ 2 p-valuea n (%) n (%) χ 2 p-valuea n (%) n (%) χ 2 p-valuea
Overall 899 (74.1) 315 (25.9)    619 (72.7) 232 (27.3)    1518 (73.5) 547 (26.5)   
Regions    38.54 <0.001    11.26 0.024    45.64 <0.001
 Central 142 (67.6) 68 (32.4)    112 (71.3) 45 (28.7)    254 (69.2) 113 (30.8)   
 Southern 174 (81.3) 40 (18.7)    113 (77.4) 33 (22.6)    287 (79.7) 73 (20.3)   
 Northern 222 (65.1) 119 (34.9)    144 (64.9) 78 (35.1)    366 (65.0) 197 (35.0)   
 East Coast 198 (84.6) 36 (15.4)    119 (76.8) 36 (23.2)    317 (81.5) 72 (18.5)   
 East Malaysia 163 (75.8) 52 (24.2)    131 (76.6) 40 (23.4)    294 (76.2) 92 (23.8)   
Area    0.05 0.821    0.14 0.707    0.01 0.928
 Urban 616 (73.9) 218 (26.1)    414 (73.1) 152 (26.9)    1030 (73.6) 370 (26.4)   
 Rural 283 (74.5) 97 (25.5)    205 (71.9) 80 (28.1)    488 (73.4) 177 (26.6)   
Gender    5.58 0.018    0.21 0.643    4.41 0.036
 Boys 391 (77.6) 113 (22.4)    259 (73.6) 93 (26.4)    650 (75.9) 206 (24.1)   
 Girls 508 (71.5) 202 (28.5)    360 (72.1) 139 (27.9)    868 (71.8) 341 (28.2)   
Ethnic groups    19.21 0.001    5.21 0.267    13.74 0.008
 Malay 640 (75.2) 211 (24.8)    393 (70.8) 162 (29.2)    1033 (73.5) 373 (26.5)   
 Chinese 96 (63.6) 55 (36.4)    88 (76.5) 27 (23.5)    184 (69.2) 82 (30.8)   
 Indian 58 (76.3) 18 (23.7)    46 (79.3) 12 (20.7)    104 (77.6) 30 (22.4)   
 Indigenous people (East Malaysia) 103 (79.8) 26 (20.2)    87 (76.3) 27 (23.7)    190 (78.2) 53 (21.8)   
 Others 2 (28.6) 5 (71.4)    5 (55.6) 4 (44.4)    7 (43.8) 9 (56.2)   
Income groups (RM)    5.95 0.203    4.66 0.324    5.32 0.256
  < 1500 305 (75.9) 97 (24.1)    206 (74.4) 71 (25.6)    511 (75.3) 168 (24.7)   
 1501–3500 214 (71.6) 85 (28.4)    188 (76.7) 57 (23.3)    402 (73.9) 142 (26.1)   
 3501–5500 158 (74.5) 54 (25.5)    104 (71.2) 42 (28.8)    262 (73.2) 96 (26.8)   
 5501–7500 105 (80.2) 26 (19.8)    50 (69.4) 22 (30.6)    155 (76.4) 48 (23.6)   
  > 7500 99 (69.2) 44 (30.8)    57 (66.3) 29 (33.7)    156 (68.1) 73 (31.9)   
BMI-for-age    3.12 0.538    3.62 0.460    4.86 0.302
 Severe thinness 11 (68.8) 5 (31.2)    17 (63.0) 10 (37.0)    28 (65.1) 15 (34.9)   
 Thinness 56 (74.7) 19 (25.3)    52 (67.5) 25 (32.5)    108 (71.1) 44 (28.9)   
 Normal 690 (73.7) 246 (26.3)    455 (72.9) 169 (27.1)    1145 (73.4) 415 (26.6)   
 Overweight 72 (71.3) 29 (28.7)    61 (77.2) 18 (22.8)    133 (73.9) 47 (26.1)   
 Obese 70 (81.4) 16 (18.6)    34 (77.3) 10 (22.7)    104 (80.0) 26 (20.0)   
Physical activity level    10.83 0.004    0.36 0.836    6.92 0.031
 Low 185 (67.3) 90 (32.7)    186 (73.2) 68 (26.8)    371 (70.1) 158 (29.9)   
 Moderate 594 (75.1) 197 (24.9)    383 (72.1) 148 (27.9)    977 (73.9) 345 (26.1)   
 High 120 (81.1) 28 (18.9)    49 (75.4) 16 (24.6)    169 (79.3) 44 (20.7)   
Screen time, hoursb             
 Weekdays 4.62 (2.75) 2.27 (1.54) 0.33 0.742 4.18 (3.31) 2.33 (1.77) 0.86 0.392 2.23 (1.61) 2.30 (1.64) 0.85 0.397
 Weekends 4.40 (2.38) 2.24 (1.44) 1.30 0.196 3.70 (3.08) 2.21 (1.83) 0.29 0.045 4.11 (2.71) 4.44 (3.01) 2.33 0.020
  1. abased on Pearson Chi-Square test or independent t-test
  2. bpresented as mean (standard deviation)