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Table 2 Description of pain and sequelae for whiplash and non-whiplash victims, at 5 year post-road-accident

From: Five years after the accident, whiplash casualties still have poorer quality of life in the physical domain than other mildly injured casualties: analysis of the ESPARR cohort

   Non-Whiplash victims Whiplash victims Chi2 test1 Whiplash victims by grade
   N = 185 N = 197   Grade 1 = 63 Grade 2 = 104
   n (%) n (%) p-value  n (%) n (%)
Presence of pain     <0.001   
  Yes 41 (22.2) 68 (40.7)   22 (34.9) 46 (44.2)
  No/don’t know/no reply 144 (77.8) 99 (69.3)   41 (65.1) 58 (55.8)
Pain by body region (present vs. absent)
  Head 2 (1.1) 11 (6.6) <0.01 2 (3.2) 9 (8.7)
  Face 2 (1.1) 0 - NS2-3 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Neck 8 (4.3) 49 (29.3) <0.0001 14 (22.2) 35 (33.7)
  Spine 13 (7.0) 29 (17.4) <0.01 8 (12.7) 21 (20.2)
  Thorax 2 (1.1) 2 (1.2) NS3 1 (1.6) 1 (1.0)
  Abdomen 0 (0.0) 2 (1.2) NS3 1 (1.6) 1 (1.0)
  Upper limbs 9 (4.9) 12 (7.2) NS 5 (7.9) 7 (6.7)
  Lower limbs 18 (9.7) 7 (4.2) <0.05 4 (6.3) 3 (2.9)
Sequelae4 of injuries related to the accident (Yes vs. No/don’t know/no reply)
  Esthetic (broken nose, scar…) 41 (22.2) 13 (7.8) <0.001 7 (11.1) 6 (5.8)
  Psychic (feeling bad) 32 (17.3) 42 (25.1) NS 13 (20.6) 29 (27.9)
  Psychocognitive (concentration or memory trouble) 8 (4.3) 18 (10.8) NS 5 (7.9) 10 (9.6)
  Headache 18 (9.7) 45 (26.9) <0.0001 15 (23.8) 30 (28.8)
  Limbs (joint stiffness, lameness, muscle weakness…) 18 (9.7) 18 (10.8) NS 6 (9.5) 12 (11.5)
  Spine (joint stiffness, frailty…) 16 (8.6) 31 (18.6) <0.01 8 (12.7) 23 (22.1)
  Neurological (paresthesia…) 5 (2.7) 8 (4.8) NS 1 (1.6) 7 (6.7)
  Sensory disorders (anosmia, …) 5 (2.7) 9 (5.4) NS 3 (4.8) 6 (5.8)
  Internal organs (dysfunction) 1 (0.5) 8 (4.8) <0.023 4 (6.3) 4 (3.8)
  Other 3 (1.6) 0 - NS3 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  1. 1The test compares the group of whiplash victims (all together) with the non-whiplash group
  2. 2NS: non-significant
  3. 3Fisher’s exact test
  4. 4other than pain