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Table 1 Sociodemographic and accident-related characteristics at inclusion for whiplash victims and non-whiplash victims

From: Five years after the accident, whiplash casualties still have poorer quality of life in the physical domain than other mildly injured casualties: analysis of the ESPARR cohort

   Non-whiplash victims Whiplash victims Chi2 test1 Whiplash victims by grade
   N = 185 N = 167 Grade 1 = 63 Grade 2 = 104
   n (%) n (%) P-value n (%) n (%)
Gender   <0.0001  
  Female 72 (38.9) 106 (63.5)   40 (63.5) 66 (63.5)
  Male 113 (61.1) 61 (36.5)   23 (36.5) 38 (36.5)
Age at the accident NS  
  16–24 years 65 (35.1) 46 (27.5)   20 (31.7) 26 (25.0)
  25–34 years 49 (26.5) 47 (28.1)   13 (20.6) 34 (32.7)
  35–44 years 30 (16.2) 43 (25.7)   16 (25.4) 27 (26.0)
  45–54 years 19 (10.3) 14 (8.4)   4 (6.3) 10 (9.6)
  ≥55 years 22 (11.9) 17 (10.2)   10 (15.9) 7 (6.7)
Family situation   <0.05   
  Single 89 (48.1) 59 (35.3)   24 (38.1) 35 (33.7)
  In couple 79 (42.7) 86 (51.5)   32 (50.8) 54 (51.9)
  Separated, divorced, widowed 17 (9.2) 22 (13.2)   7 (11.1) 15 (14.4)
Educational level   NS   
  <school-leaving cert. 92 (49.7) 76 (45.5)   30 (47.6) 46 (44.2)
  school-leaving cert. 38 (20.5) 36 (21.6)   16 (25.4) 20 (19.2)
  >school-leaving cert. 55 (29.7) 55 (32.9)   17 (27.0) 38 (36.5)
Socio-occupational category   NS   
  Farming, trade 13 (7.0) 5 (3.0)   4 (6.3) 1 (1.0)
  Exec., sup. intellectual 22 (11.9) 23 (13.8)   8 (12.7) 15 (14.4)
  Intermediate 21 (11.4) 17 (10.2)   5 (7.9) 12 (11.5)
  Office worker 71 (38.4) 83 (49.7)   28 (44.4) 55 (52.9)
  Manual 20 (10.8) 11 (6.6)   3 (4.8) 8 (7.7)
  Student, housewife, other, no reply 38 (20.5) 28 (16.8)   15 (23.8) 13 (12.5)
Financial difficulties4 before accident   <0.05   
  No 147 (79.5) 116 (69.5)   45 (71.4) 71 (68.3)
  Yes 38 (20.5) 51 (30.5)   18 (28.6) 33 (31.7)
Reason for travel   NS   
  Journey to work/school 66 (35.7) 65 (38.9)   20 (31.7) 45 (43.3)
  Work purposes 6 (3.2) 6 (3.6)   4 (6.3) 2 (1.9)
  Other 113 (61.1) 96 (57.5)   39 (61.9) 57 (54.8)
Type of road-user   <0.0001   
  4-wheel motor 76 (41.1) 145 (86.8)   52 (82.5) 93 (89.4)
  Other 109 (58.9) 22 (13.2)   11 (17.5) 11 (10.6)
Place in vehicle   <0.01   
  Driver 128 (69.2) 134 (80.2)   53 (84.1) 81 (77.9)
  Front passenger 17 (9.2) 18 (10.8)   6 (9.5) 12 (11.5)
  Rear seat passenger 8 (4.3) 7 (4.2)   2 (3.2) 5 (4.8)
  Unknown passenger/no reply 32 (17.3) 8 (4.8)   2 (3.2) 6 (5.8)
Antagonist   <0.01   
  None 49 (26.5) 20 (12.0)   4 (6.3) 16 (15.4)
  Other (pedestrian, fixed obstacle…) 28 (15.1) 21 (12.6)   10 (15.9) 11 (10.6)
  Motor vehicle 108 (58.4) 126 (75.4)   49 (77.8) 77 (74.0)
Impact direction5   <0.0001   
  Frontal 33 (17.8) 35 (21.0)   12 (19.0) 23 (22.1)
  Rear 7 (3.8) 56 (33.5)   17 (27.0) 39 (37.5)
  Lateral Right 18 (9.7) 19 (11.4)   6 (9.5) 13 (12.5)
  Lateral Left 12 (6.5) 27 (16.2)   15 (23.8) 12 (11.5)
  Don’t know/no reply 115 (62.2) 30 (18.0)   13 (20.6) 17 (16.3)
Friend or family member involved6   NS3   
  No 142 (76.8) 115 (69.5)   45 (71.4) 70 (67.3)
  Yes 43 (23.2) 51 (30.5)   17 (27.0) 34 (32.7)
Intention to lodge a complaint NS   
  No 111 (60.0) 99 (59.3)   34 (54.0) 65 (62.5)
  Yes 18 (9.7) 22 (13.2)   10 (15.9) 12 (11.5)
  Don’t know/no reply 56 30.3) 46 (27.5)   19 (30.2) 27 (26.0)
Subjective responsibility in accident   <0.0001   
  No 52 (28.1) 92 (55.1)   39 (61.9) 53 (51.0)
  Yes 48 (25.9) 34 (20.4)   12 (19.0) 22 (21.2)
  Don’t know/no reply 85 (45.9) 41 (24.6)   12 (19.0) 29 (27.9)
Psychological history7   NS   
  No 129 (69.7) 105 (62.9)   37 (58.7) 68 (65.4)
  Yes 56 (30.3) 62 (37.1)   26 (41.3) 36 (34.6)
PTSD in the 1st Year   0.05   
  No 162 (87.6) 139 (83.2)   52 (82.5) 87 (83.7)
  Yes 23 (12.4) 28 (16.8)   11 (17.5) 17 (16.3)
  1. 1The test compares the group of the whiplash victims (all together) with the non-whiplash group
  2. 2NS: non-significant
  3. 3Fisher’s exact test
  4. 4Combination of several variables: job loss, financial difficulties, failure over the 12 months before the accident
  5. 5The impact direction was known only for the 4-wheel motor users; other road users are classified “no apply”
  6. 6Some non-respondent subjects: total does not equal 100 %
  7. 7Combination of several variables: sleep disorder, consumption of antidepressants/anxiolytics, regular appointments with a psychologist over the 12 months before the accident