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Table 1 Treatment effects on self-report outcomes

From: Open and Calm – A randomized controlled trial evaluating a public stress reduction program in Denmark

Outcome Open and Calm (OC) Treatment as Usual (TAU) OC vs. TAU OC vs. TAU changea   
  M (SD) d (within) M (SD) d (within) d (between) p F ηp2 (between) p Covariates
Perceived Stress (PSS)
 Pre-treatment (T1) 18.75 (6.48)   18.22 (4.01)   0.09 .718 12.96 .16**** < .0001  
 Post-treatmentb (T2) 12.88 (7.31) 0.92*** 17.33 (3.51) 0.22 0.71** .012 Employment
TCI-HA
 Follow-upc (T3) 11.64 (6.26) 0.24 16.77 (3.83) 0.25 0.93*** .001
 Pre-treatment—Follow-up   1.30***   0.39*       
Mental Health (SF-36-MCS)
 Pre-treatment (T1) 47.24 (26.05)   55.06 (17.26)   0.20 .299 4.97 .13** = .0018  
 Post-treatmentb (T2) 51.22 (25.17) 0.21 52.95 (19.26) −0.18 0.08 .971 Age
 Follow-upc (T3) 67.09 (17.57) 0.89*** 57.73 (16.38) 0.30 0.55* .012  
 Pre-treatment—Follow-up   0.99***   0.15       
Depression (MDI)
 Pre-treatment (T1) 16.98 (8.67)   15.75 (7.10)   0.15 .551 8.01 .11** = .002  
 Post-treatmentb (T2) 10.04 (8.65) 0.91*** 13.27 (5.97) 0.36 −0.42* .044 MAAS
 Follow-upc (T3) 8.04 (6.01) 0.51 12.42 (6.02) 0.22 −0.74** .006  
 Pre-treatment—Follow-up   1.44***   0.60*       
Quality of Life (WHO-5)
 Pre-treatment (T1) 46.88 (17.32)   48.67 (15.72)   −0.11 .671 5.71 .08** .004  
 Post-treatmentb (T2) 62.04 (19.84) 1.01*** 53.92 (14.54) 0.31 0.45 .080 BMI
 Follow-upc (T3) 65.75 (16.44) 0.23 55.67 (15.19) 0.10 0.64** .014 TCI-HA
 Pre-treatment—Follow-up   1.06***   0.39       
Sleep Quality (PSQI)
 Pre-treatment (T1) 6.97 (2.49)   6.67 (2.81)   0.12 .531 11.27 .14*** = .0001  
 Post-treatmentb (T2) 5.43 (3.63) 0.47*** 5.92 (2.73) 0.25 −0.15 .254 Smoking
 Follow-upc (T3) 4.96 (2.93) 0.22 6.63 (3.16) −0.22 -.56* .017  
 Pre-treatment—Follow-up   0.73***   0.01       
  1. Notes. *.p<.05.**.p<.01.***.p<.001. All p-values are two-tailed , Bonferroni-Holm corrected, and based on intent-to-treat-analyses (OC: n=48; TAU: n=24). The OC vs. TAU change-models adjusted for relevant biopsychosocial covariates (listed in the column “Covariates”) as well as for Time✕Group✕Covariate-interactions. a. Effect sizes indicate pre-treatment—post-treatment—follow-up Time✕Group effects. b. Within-group effect sizes indicate pre-treatment—post-treatment effects. c. Within-group effect sizes indicate post-treatment—follow-up effects. MAAS = Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. MDI=Major Depression Inventory. PSQI=Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. PSS=Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale. SF-36-MCS=Short Form Health Survey-36-Mental Component Summary. TCI-HA = Temperament and Character Inventory - Harm-avoidance. Smoking = Smokers was defined as participants who smoked daily, while other participants were defined as non-smokers