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Table 3 Summary of beliefs and attitudes of subjects emerging from focus group discussions

From: A qualitative assessment of the perceived risks of electronic cigarette and hookah use in pregnancy

Nodes Major Themes Minor Themes
Comparison of e-cigarettes to regular cigarettes 1. E-cigarettes are a safer and healthier alternative to regular cigarettes 1. Lack of secondhand smoke
2. Contain vapor (rather than smoke)
3. Not as many chemicals
4. Can be used indoors
Electronic cigarette use in pregnancy 1. E-cigarettes are not safe in pregnancy and are likely harmful to the fetus
2. E-cigarettes may be as bad as regular cigarettes during pregnancy
1. Rather than using e-cigarettes to quit smoking while pregnant, mom’s should either just quit or use the patch or gum
2. Switching to e-cigarettes to quit smoking may have fewer side effects.
Stigma for e-cigarette use in pregnancy 1. There are risks for e-cigarette use in pregnancy
2. A mother who uses e-cigarettes in pregnancy is not taking care of her baby.
1. Because there are fewer side effects of e-cigarettes, it may not be as bad as smoking.
Terminology for e-cigarettes 1. Blu 1. E-cigs
2. Vaporizors
3. Smokeless or smokefree
Hookah knowledge 1. Popular with teenagers
2. Hookah bars are common
1. Tobacco comes in many flavors
2. Hookah can be seen on TV
Hookah use during pregnancy 1. Hookah in pregnancy is dangerous for mother and baby.