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Table 2 High nicotine dependence by selected socio-demographic characteristics in men aged 26 years and over – Multivariable logistic regressiona

From: Patterns of nicotine dependence in four Eastern European countries

Variable Poland Romania Russia Ukraine
  OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Sex     
 Female 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)
 Male 1.5 (1.1–2.0)b 1.5 (1.01–2.2)d 2.7 (2.1–3.5)b 2.6 (1.7–4.2)b
Age (years)
 26–29 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)
 30–39 1.4 (0.8–2.3) 1.5 (0.9–2.8) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 2.4 (1.5–3.9)b
 40–49 1.8 (1.1–3.1)d 4.1 (2.3–7.1)b 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 2.8 (1.8– 4.6)b
 50–59 1.9 (1.2–3.3)c 4.8 (2.7–8.4)b 1.7 (1.3–2.3)b 2.9 (1.8–4.8)b
 ≥60 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 2.0 (1.0–4.1)d 1.4 (0.9–2.0) 2.2 (1.1–4.3)d
Age at smoking onset
 <14 3.8 (1.8–8.4)b 5.0 (2.4–10.2)b 3.0 (2.2–4.1)b 3.1 (2.0–4.9)b
 14–17 2.5 (1.7–3.6)b 3.5 (2.1–5.8)b 1.5 (1.2–1.9)b 1.9 (1.3–2.7)b
 18–20 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 1.7 (1.0–2.7)c 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.2 (0.8–1.7)
 ≥21 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)
Education     
 Primary 2.6 (1.4–4.9)c 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 1.6 (0.9–2.6) 3.0 (1.7–5.4)b
 Vocational 2.0 (1.2–3.6)c 1.2 (0.6–2.1) 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 1.5 (1.0–2.2)
 Secondary 1.7 (0.95–3.0) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 1.3 (1.0–1.6)d 2.3 (1.5– 3.5)b
 High 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)
Occupational classification
 Economically not active 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 0.9 (0.6–1.5)
 Employed 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)
 Unemployed 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 1.5 (0.9–2.3) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.6 (1.1–2.1)c
Place of residence
 Rural    1.2 (1.0–1.4)d 1.3 (1.0–1.6)
 Urban    1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)
Asset Index
 High 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)
 Middle 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 0.8 (0.5–1.1) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 0.8 (0.6–1.2)
 Low 0.9 (0.4–1.8) 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.8 (0.6–1.0)
Rules regarding smoking at home
 Smoking is allowed 1.9 (1.2–3.0)c 2.0 (1.3–3.0)b 1.8 (1.4–2.2)b 2.1 (1.5–2.9)b
 Smoking is prohibited– with some exceptions 1.7 (1.1–2.6)d 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.3 (1.1–1.6)c 1.6 (1.2–2.1)b
 Smoking is completely prohibited 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)
 No rules 2.0 (1.2–3.5)c 3.0 (1.4–6.8)b 1.5 (1.1–2.1)d 1.4 (0.8–2.5)
Awareness of smoking health consequences
 Yes 1.0 (Ref.)    1.0 (Ref.)
 No 1.3 (0.9–2.0)    1.0 (0.7–1.5)
Awareness of ETS health consequences
 Yes   1.0 (Ref.)   1.0 (Ref.)
 No   1.6 (0.9–2.7)   1.4 (0.9–2.0)
Level of support for tobacco control
 High 1.0 (Ref.)   1.0 (Ref.) 1.0 (Ref.)
 Medium 1.6 (1.1–2.1)c   1.4 (1.1–1.7)c 1.2 (0.9–1.6)
 Low 0.9 (0.6–1.3)   1.3 (0.7–2.2) 0.9 (0.3–2.9)
  1. aFully adjusted model including stat
  2. bp ≤ 0.001
  3. cp ≤ 0.01
  4. dp ≤ 0.05
  5. OR- odds ratio for high nicotine dependence by selected characteristics
  6. 95 % CI-95 % confidence interval
  7. Ref. – reference group