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Table 4 Age-sex-adjusted associations of inadequate sleep with sociodemographics, health risks, and comorbid conditions in the black stratum (1983-2009)

From: Differential increase in prevalence estimates of inadequate sleep among black and white Americans

Characteristics Very short sleep Short sleep Long sleep
  OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Education (Reference:High School) 1.22 (1.01,1.47)b 0.82 (0.75,0.89)b 2.12 (1.90,2.36)b
Marital status (Reference: Married)    
 Widowed 1.12 (0.77,1.63) 1.01 (0.86,1.19) 1.43 (1.16,1.77)b
 Divorced 1.61 (1.25,2.06)b 1.10 (1.00,1.21)b 0.89 (0.76,1.04)
 Separated 1.54 (1.14,2.09)b 1.02 (0.89,1.16) 1.32 (1.10,1.60)b
 Single 1.15 (0.91,1.45) 0.88 (0.81,0.96)b 1.19 (1.06,1.34)b
Family income (Reference: ≥ 35K) 1.52 (1.25,1.85)b 0.81 (0.75.0.87)b 1.77 (1.56,1.99)b
Poverty status (Reference: Above) 1.95 (1.61,2.36)b 0.96 (0.88,1.04) 1.94 (1.73,2.17)b
Smoking status (Reference: Never) 1.04 (1.02,1.06)b 1.02 (1.01,1.02)b 1.05 (1.04,1.06)b
Alcohol consumption (Reference: Never)    
 Former 1.67 (1.26,2.20)b 1.51 (1.34,1.70)b 1.29 (1.08,1.54)b
 Current 1.52 (1.22,1.89)b 1.58 (1.45,1.72)b 1.02 (0.90,1.16)
Physical activity (Reference: Yes)a 2.51 (1.62,3.90)b 1.02 (0.78,1.35) 2.90 (2.07,4.05)b
Emotional distress (Reference: No)a 13.95 (11.89,16.37)b 2.70 (2.44,2.99)b 4.08 (3.53,4.71)b
Body mass index (Reference: Normal)    
 Overweight 1.38 (1.11,1.70)b 1.17 (1.08,1.27)b 0.87 (0.77,0.98)
 Obesity 1.73 (1.39,2.15)b 1.36 (1.25,1.48)b 1.08 (0.92,1.18)
Comorbid conditions:    
 Cancer 1.27 (1.04,1.94)b 1.24 (1.01,1.53)b 1.36 (0.99,1.88)
 Diabetes 1.50 (1.05,2.15)b 1.13 (1.04,1.29)b 1.46 (1.21,1.76)b
 Hypertension 1.69 (1.39,2.05)b 1.09 (1.01,1.18)b 1.32 (1.18,1.49)b
 Kidney disease 2.27 (1.38,3.74)b 0.86 (0.65,1.13) 1.49 (1.02,2.31)b
 Heart attack (MI) 1.71 (1.05,2.79)b 1.08 (0.83,1.39) 2.23 (1.56,3.18)b
 Coronary heart disease 1.83 (1.15,2.92)b 1.09 (0.87,1.37) 1.61 (1.32,2.35)b
 Stroke 2.35 (1.57,3.51)b 0.86 (0.69,1.08) 1.78 (1.37,2.37)b
  1. Legend: aData available for 2004 – 2009; bdenotes significance at the 5 % level (i.e., odds ratio is either significantly < or > 1); data from 1977 were excluded since many of the medical comorbidities were not available; inadequate sleep was defined as very short sleep [VSS] (<5 h/night), short sleep [SS] (5-6 h/night), or long sleep [LS] (>8 h/night), referenced to 7-8 h/night sleepers