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Table 2 Characteristics of black participants in the NHIS study (1977-2009)

From: Differential increase in prevalence estimates of inadequate sleep among black and white Americans

Characteristics 1977 1983 1985 1990 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
N 1,703 942a 4,270 4,922 3,501 3,496 3,285 2,977 2,727 3,738
Gender, Female (%) 59.1 59.5 55.3 54.8 54.2 53.1 53.6 53.2 54.5 54.5
Age, years (mean ± SD) 40 ± 15 38 ± 15 38 ± 19 38 ± 18 40 ± 17 40 ± 17 40 ± 18 40 ± 17 40 ± 18 41 ± 16
Education, ≥ HS (%) 55.2 64.9 67.0 72.3 84.5 85.2 86.2 86.4 87.3 86.9
Marital status (%)           
 Married 50.3 47.0 46.7 45.9 38.9 37.7 37.9 37.4 35.3 36.0
 Widowed, Divorced & Separated 29.3 21.8 20.6 21.5 22.4 22.0 21.2 22.2 20.6 21.0
 Single 20.4 31.2 32.7 32.6 38.7 40.3 40.9 40.4 44.1 43.0
Family income, ≥35K (%) -- 10.3 13.5 25.4 45.9 47.2 45.3 52.3 54.9 53.0
Poverty status, below (%) -- 22.8 27.9 23.5 18.5 20.4 21.6 23.1 19.9 23.0
Ever smoked, yes (%) 57.2 50.5 52.1 43.5 32.8 34.7 34.3 33.3 34.9 35.2
Alcohol consumption           
 Never drinkers -- -- -- 25.4 36.2 36.4 34.1 31.9 28.9 27.1
 Former drinkers -- -- -- 9.3 13.2 13.0 13.8 14.5 14.9 15.1
 Current drinkers -- -- -- 65.4 50.6 50.6 52.2 53.6 56.2 57.8
Body mass index (mean ± SD) 25.8 ± 5.4 25.6 ± 5.2 25.6 ± 6.2 26.5 ± 6.4 28.0 ± 6.3 27.8 ± 6.3 28.3 ± 7.2 28.4 ± 7.1 28.4 ± 7.3 28.7 ± 8.2
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 16.9 17.6 16.1 21.3 31.9 31.3 32.9 34.4 35.9 36.7
Physical activity, yes (%) -- -- -- -- 11.5 11.5 10.9 11.9 13.6 13.7
Emotional stress, yes (%) -- -- -- -- 3.6 3.2 3.7 2.6 3.6 4.0
Comorbid conditions:           
Diabetes -- 5.8 -- -- 8.3 8.7 9.7 9.5 9.4 10.7
Hypertension -- 31.2 28.1 28.0 27.8 27.5 28.9 29.9 30.6 30.9
Cancer -- 0.3 -- -- 2.7 2.4 2.8 2.9 2.6 3.2
Coronary heart disease -- 1.4 -- -- 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.9
Heart attack (MI) -- -- -- -- 1.4 1.6 2.1 1.6 2.3 2.5
Stroke -- 1.1 1.3 1.8 2.1 2.0 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.4
Kidney disease -- -- -- -- 1.8 1.9 1.5 2.6 1.6 1.6
Sleep measures:           
Hours of sleep (mean ± SD) 7.4 ± 1.6 7.2 ± 1.6 7.5 ± 2.3 7.4 ± 2.4 7.1 ± 2.3 7.1 ± 1.7 7.0 ± 1.8 7.1 ± 1.8 7.1 ± 2.1 7.0 ± 2.3
Categories of sleep quantity           
 Very short sleep 3.3 4.4 2.4 2.4 3.3 3.1 3.7 3.6 3.8 4.0
 Short sleep 24.6 27.8 25.8 27.4 31.7 31.7 32.6 30.9 33.2 33.7
 Normal sleep 56.0 55.9 54.6 56.2 55.5 55.7 55.4 56.5 53.9 52.9
 Long sleep 16.1 11.9 17.2 14.0 9.4 9.4 8.3 9.0 9.1 9.4
  1. Legend: Note that several health factors were not collected prior to 2004; athe total sample is 1,934, but only 942 were usable in analysis due to application of weighting factors