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Table 2 Sub-group comparisons among ARMHS participants who completed a WMH-CIDI-3.0 – based on Potentially Traumatic Event (PTE) experience and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) history

From: Long-term effects of lifetime trauma exposure in a rural community sample

Characteristic A B C D Overall analysisa p-value Pattern of sub-group differences (post-hoc tests)
Trauma + current PTSD Trauma + past PTSD Trauma without PTSD No trauma
(N = 89) (N = 62) (N = 363) (N = 109)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Demographics
 Age 51.9 (13.1) 53.7 (12.0) 57.2 (13.5) 54.1 (16.0) .004 A < C
 Gender (male), % (n) 32.6 (29) 29.0 (18) 45.2 (164) 33.0 (36) .010 nil
 Ever married, % (n) 93.3 (83) 83.3 (50) 93.4 (338) 90.8 (95) .061  
 Completed high school, % (n) 69.7 (62) 58.1 (36) 69.1 (251) 65.1 (71) .331  
Current functioning
 Current psychological distress 23.1 (7.8) 20.7 (6.1) 18.2 (6.1) 17.2 (6.2) <.001 A,B > C,D
 Alcohol use 5.4 (6.8) 3.4 (4.7) 4.1 (4.1) 3.7 (3.5) .034  
 Service use for mental health problem, % (n) 61.8 (47) 44.4 (24) 31.0 (95) 23.4 (22) <.001 A > C,D; B > D
Adverse life events 2.7 (2.0) 2.3 (1.9) 1.9 (1.7) 1.1 (1.2) <.001 A > C > D; B > D
Dispositional variables
 HOPES-12 2.5 (0.7) 2.7 (0.6) 2.8 (0.6) 2.8 (0.6) .017  
 Neuroticism 3.7 (2.0) 3.2 (2.1) 2.5 (2.1) 2.8 (2.1) <.001 A > C,D
Community factors
 Live on farm, % (n) 23.6 (21) 23.3 (14) 25.4 (91) 18.5 (20) .534  
 Proportion of life in a rural area 0.7 (0.3) 0.7 (0.3) 0.7 (0.3) 0.7 (0.3) .876  
 Infrastructure and services accessibility 2.9 (1.0) 2.8 (1.0) 2.5 (1.0) 2.5 (1.0) .001 A > C,D
 Remoteness category, % (n)
  Inner regional 35.5 (22) 40.4 (36) 41.3 (150) 36.7 (40) .132  
  Outer regional 45.2 (28) 41.6 (37) 36.1 (131) 34.9 (38)   
  Remote 6.5 (4) 9.0 (8) 14.9 (54) 22.0 (24)   
  Very remote 12.9 (8) 9.0 (8) 7.7 (28) 6.4 (7)   
 Social support 4.2 (2.0) 4.5 (1.7) 5.0 (1.6) 5.3 (1.2) <.001 A < C,D; B < D
Other psychiatric morbidity
 Lifetime suicidal ideation, % (n) 40.4 (36) 37.1 (23) 22.0 (80) 13.8 (15) <.001 A > C,D; B > D
 Lifetime affective disorder, % (n) 42.7 (38) 32.3 (20) 16.8 (61) 18.3 (20) <.001 A > C,D
 Lifetime anxiety disorder, % (n) 100 (89) 100 (62) 25.3 (92) 17.4 (19) <.001 A > C,D; B > D
 Lifetime substance use disorder, % (n) 40.4 (36) 32.3 (20) 24.0 (87) 11.9 (13) <.001 A > C > D; B > D
PTE history
 Age at first trauma 17.4 (14.1) 18.5 (12.5) 21.4 (15.5) N/A .045  
 Number of traumatic events 3.4 (1.7) 3.3 (1.9) 2.5 (1.5) N/A <.001 A,B > C
  1. K10: Kessler 10; AUDIT: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; HOPES-12: Hunter Opinions and Personal Expectations Scale-12 (based on a subset of 384 participants); WMH-CIDI-3.0: World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0
  2. aOverall comparisons (chi-square tests or ANCOVAs, controlling for age category and gender), with post-hoc follow-up tests