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Table 5 Risk of bias in randomized control trials and other study designs

From: Systematic review of structural interventions for intimate partner violence in low- and middle-income countries: organizing evidence for prevention

  Randomized control trial Other study designs
  Pronyk (2008) [38] Pulerwitz (2015) [40] Wagman (2015) [42] Ahmed (2005) [24] Bobonis (2013) [25] Das (2012) [26] Jewkes (2014) [32] Miller (2014) [36] Pulerwitz (2015) [39] Usdin (2005) [41]
Study design           
 Prospective identification of intervention and comparison groups Yes Yes Yes No No No Intervention only Yes Intervention only No
 Baseline and follow-up measurement of intervention and comparison groups Yes Yes Yes No No No Intervention only Yes Intervention only Yes
Selection bias           
 Sample size calculation NR NR Yes NR NR No NR NR NR NR
 Random sequence generation1 Yes Yes Yes+ --- --- --- --- --- ---  
 Allocation concealment NR No No --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
 Blinding of outcome assessment NR NR NR --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
 Equivalent eligibility criteria in intervention and comparison groups --- --- --- Unclear2 Yes Yes Intervention only Yes Intervention only Yes
Detection bias           
 Consistent outcome measurement across intervention and comparison groups Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Intervention only Yes Yes Yes
Analysis           
 Statistical control for confounding Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Partial3 Yes
 Intention to treat analysis Yes NR Yes --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Reporting bias           
 Complete reporting of outcomes described in methods in results Yes Partial4 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Partial Unclear
Reporting bias: conflicts of interest         
 Implementation and analysis independent from funders NR NR Yes NR NR NR NR NR NR Partial5
Reporting bias: adherence to recommendations for IPV research        
 Age ≥15 for IPV questions N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A Yes N/A
 IPV-specific training for interviewers N/A NR Yes Unclear NR N/A NR N/A NR N/A
 IPV referral information or protocols N/A NR Yes NR NR N/A NR N/A NR N/A
  1. NR not reported
  2. N/A not applicable
  3. 1NR not reported, Yes = randomization reported, and Yes + = randomization and randomly generated allocation sequence reported
  4. 2It is unclear whether equivalent criteria were used to define “low-income” in intervention and comparison households based on reported methods
  5. 3It appears that authors used chi square tests or bivariate regression for IPV outcomes, and multivariate regression for analyses of gender norms
  6. 4The authors report all outcomes described in the methods among the results; however, they do not show full, adjusted effect sizes for all outcomes
  7. 5Evaluation reported to be conducted and managed by independent researchers