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Table 4 Results of the stratified negative binomial regression analyses for the risk of losing teeth (n = 1694). Adjusteda relative risks (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI)

From: Association between smoking intensity and duration and tooth loss among Finnish middle-aged adults: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Project

  Gender Education Tooth brushing
Male Female Low High Once daily or less At least twice daily
(n = 785) (n = 909) (n = 688) (n = 1006) (n = 557) (n = 1137)
RR (95 % CI) RR (95 % CI) RR (95 % CI) RR (95 % CI) RR (95 % CI) RR (95 % CI)
Smoking       
 0–10 pack-years 1.90 (1.12–3.21) 1.07 (0.68–1.70) 1.34 (0.84–2.14) 1.42 (0.85–2.37) 1.58 (0.85–2.95) 1.35 (0.89–2.04)
 11–20 pack-years 2.27 (1.41–3.65) 1.20 (0.83–1.74) 1.65 (1.16–2.35) 1.35 (0.79–2.30) 1.97 (1.21–3.23) 1.31 (0.90–1.91)
 21 or more pack-years 2.23 (1.52–3.26) 1.41 (0.96–2.08) 1.64 (1.20–2.25) 2.25 (1.35–3.74) 1.81 (1.21–2.70) 1.81 (1.25–2.63)
 Former smoker 1.36 (1.06–1.75) 0.98 (0.78–1.24) 1.14 (0.90–1.44) 1.12 (0.88–1.43) 1.22 (0.92–1.61) 1.09 (0.88–1.34)
 Occasional smoker 1.24 (0.86–1.80) 0.76 (0.52–1.12) 0.99 (0.67–1.45) 1.01 (0.70–1.46) 0.95 (0.62–1.44) 1.01 (0.71–1.42)
 Never smoker (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 1–20 years of smoking 2.00 (1.17–3.42) 1.07 (0.69–1.65) 1.47 (0.96–2.24) 1.28 (0.73–2.25) 1.60 (0.89–2.88) 1.32 (0.87–2.00)
 21–30 years of smoking 2.15 (1.49–3.11) 1.32 (0.95–1.84) 1.68 (1.25–2.26) 1.56 (1.00–2.44) 1.85 (1.25–2.72) 1.55 (1.12–2.14)
 31 or more years of smoking 2.33 (1.40–3.87) 1.26 (0.76–2.08) 1.47 (0.95–2.29) 2.35 (1.31–4.22) 1.95 (1.13–3.36) 1.59 (0.98–2.56)
 Never smoker (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. aAdjusted for diabetes, dental plaque, alcohol use and other stratification factors (gender, education, tooth brushing) in this table