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Table 2 Maternal and early infant predictors of inpatient admission for suspected pneumonia during the first 6 months of life, Ha Nam province, Vietnam (n = 1049)

From: Exclusive breast feeding in early infancy reduces the risk of inpatient admission for diarrhea and suspected pneumonia in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study

  Univariable regression Multivariable regressiona
Maternal Factors Odds ratio 95 % CI P value Odds ratio 95 % CI P value
Demographic factors       
Maternal age (years) 0.96 0.91 to 1.01 0.06 0.95 0.89 to 1.00 0.06
Education       
Primary Reference - - Reference - -
Secondary 0.97 0.53 to 1.78 0.92 0.95 0.48 to 1.91 089
University 1.13 0.54 to 2.35 0.74 1.36 0.56 to 3.33 0.50
Gravidity       
Primgravida Reference - - Reference - -
Multigravida 1.04 0.66 to 1.66 0.86 1.50 0.87 to 2.58 0.15
Main energy source       
Gas Reference - - Reference - -
Firewood/Straw/Hay 0.85 0.45 to 1.61 0.62 0.88 0.45 to 1.72 0.70
Other 0.72 0.22 to 2.39 0.60 0.82 0.18 to 3.68 0.79
Type of toilet       
Flush toilet/septic tank Reference - - Reference - -
Compartment latrine 0.75 0.38 to 1.45 0.39 0.74 0.39 to 1.40 0.36
Pit latrine/none 1.11 0.62 to 1.99 0.72 1.01 0.54 to 1.89 0.98
Main water source       
Rain water Reference - - Reference - -
Well water/river water 2.22 1.04 to 4.73 0.04 2.67 1.05 to 6.77 0.04
Tap/piped water 0.92 0.39 to 2.19 0.85 0.69 0.26 to 1.83 0.46
Nutritional and health status       
Body mass index at enrolment (kg/m2) 0.96 0.86 to 1.07 0.44    
Depression early pregnancy 0.74 0.41 to 1.33 0.32    
Depression late pregnancy 1.13 0.58 to 2.20 0.72    
Antenatal practices       
Change of diet when pregnant 1.39 0.81 to 2.38 0.23    
Meat intake during pregnancy (number of times per week) 1.08 0.96 to 1.21 0.23    
Supplements taken during trial intervention       
Daily IFA supplements Reference - -    
Twice weekly IFA supplements 1.28 0.76 to 2.16 0.36 1.10 0.60 to 2.14 0.77
MMN supplements 1.18 0.69 to 2.03 0.55 1.14 0.45 to 1.71 0.69
Micronutrient status in late pregnancy       
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 1.02 0.85 to 1.23 0.80    
Ferritin (log2 ug/L)b 0.75 0.53 to 1.08 0.12    
B12 (log2 pmol/L)b 1.22 0.62 to 2.40 0.57    
Folate (log2 nmol/L)b 0.73 0.41 to 1.29 0.28    
Iodine (log2 ug/L)b 1.08 0.82 to 1.43 0.60    
Infant factors       
Birthweight (per 100 grams) 0.98 0.98 to 1.00 0.48    
Gestational age at delivery (weeks) 0.88 0.80 to 0.98 0.02 0.92 0.82 to 1.04 0.18
Male sex 2.14 1.35 to 3.39 0.01 2.35 1.40 to 3.96 0.01
Child care practices       
Exclusive breast feeding at six weeks of age 0.44 0.25 to 0.75 0.01 0.39 0.20 to 0.75 0.01
Use of dietary supplements for child in the first six months 0.74 0.40 to 1.38 0.34    
  1. aAdjusted for maternal age, education, gravidity, trial intervention, infant sex, gestational age at delivery, type of toilet, water source, main energy source and other factors with statistically significant univariable associations with the outcome
  2. bLog2 transformed—odds ratio represents a twofold change in ferritin, B12, folate or iodine