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Table 3 E4 analysis- proportion of adherence to the different subscores among all participating prisons (n = 109)

From: Insufficient access to harm reduction measures in prisons in 5 countries (PRIDE Europe): a shared European public health concern

  Belgium (N = 17/35) Austria (N = 28/28) Denmark (N = 29/50) Italy (N = 35/205) P *
Information-Education-Communication 0 0 0 0  
• Availability of Information/education at entry or during prison stay 15 (88.2) 28 (100.0) 3 (10.3) 13 (37.1) <10 −3
• Peer education programs available 4 (23.5) 2 (7.1) 4 (13.8) 1 (2.9) 0.07
• Availability of clean injecting equipment + condoms 0 0 0 0  
Testing – Counseling 0 0 0 0  
• Testing for HIV, HBV, HCV systematically proposed at entry (RC) and during prison stay (all prisons) 3 (17.7) 11 (39.3) 8 (27.6) 35 (100.0) <10 −3
• Availability of clean injecting equipment + condoms 0 0 0 0  
Condoms - Lubricants 9 (52.9) 8 (28.6) 2 (6.9) 0 (0.0) 0.002 ł
• Condoms available in various locations 12 (70.6) 14 (50.0) 14 (48.3) 0 (0.0) 0.29 ł
• Water-based lubricants available 13 (76.5) 23 (82.1) 6 (20.7) 0 (0.0) <10-3 ł
• Male condoms and lubricants accessible and female condoms accessible for prisons with female prisoners 14 (82.4) 14 (50.0) 13 (44.8) 0 (0.0) 0.04 ł
Opioid Substitution Therapy 4 (23.5) 6 (21.4) 7 (24.1) 5 (14.3) 0.66
• Induction at entry (RC) + induction during prison stay + continuity of OST at entry (all prisons) 11 (64.7) 20 (71.4) 24 (82.8) 12 (34.3) 0.0001
• No ceiling dosage 8 (47.1) 15 (53.6) 19 (65.5) 30 (85.7) 0.05
• No buprenorphine crushing or dilution 15 (88.2) 17 (60.7) 11 (37.9) 17 (48.6) 0.002
Bleach 0 (0.0) 11 (39.3) 11 (37.9) 0 (0.0) <10 −3
• At least 2 locations/access for bleach inside prison (penitentiary distribution, purchasable inside prison, available in medical unit) 0 (0.0) 20 (71.4) 17 (58.6) 0 (0.0) <10 −3
• Intelligible information for HR purposes accessible to all prisoners 4 (23.5) 13 (46.4) 12 (41.4) 0 (0.0) 0.30 ł
HBV Vaccination (systematic proposal for unprotected inmates) 0 (0.0) 4 (14.3) 3 (10.3) 18 (51.4) <10 −3
Post-Exposition Prophylaxis (inmates informed of the availability of PEP) 0 (0.0) 11 (39.3) 1 (3.5) 27 (77.1) <10 −3
Needle Exchange Programs 0 0 0 0  
ARV treatment 14 (82.4) 27 (96.4) 29 (100.0) 33 (94.3) 0.11
• ARV are accessible 17 (100.0) 27 (100.0) 29 (100.00) 33 (89.2) 0.24
• Prescriptions follow national guidelines 14 (82.4) 27 (96.4) 29 (100.0) 33 (94.3) 0.11
Prevention of transmission through tattooing, piercing 2 (11.8) 0 (0.0) 5 (17.2) 0 (0.0) 0.01
Total score, median (Q1-Q3) 4.0 (3.5-4.5) 4.5 (3–6.5) 4.0 (3.0-4.5) 3.5 (2.5-4) 0.0014
  1. *Chi-square or exact Fisher test for categorical variables, Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney test for continuous variables
  2. ł Excluding Italy
  3. HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; HCV: Hepatitis C Virus; HBV: Hepatitis B Virus; NGO: Non-Governmental Organization; RC: remand center; PS: prison for sentenced; SPS: Security prison for sentenced; JUV: juvenile prison center; OST: opioid substitution therapy; HR: Harm Reduction; ARV: Antiretroviral Treatment
  4. Bold numbers are only to identify the total score for each subscore and is not related to its statistical value and P values are on the right column
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