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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted LME models predicting the effects of study variables on mean resilience scores among Cedar Project participants (n = 191)

From: The Cedar Project: resilience in the face of HIV vulnerability within a cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities

  B SE t-value 95 % CI p-value Adjusted B SE t-value 95 % CI p-value
Potential Confounders           
 Age 0.29 0.27 1.05 −0.25, 0.83 0.293      
 Female sex −2.59 2.77 −0.93 8.02, 2.85 0.353      
 Ever in Foster Care −2.24 3.04 −0.74 −8.2-, 3.73 0.463      
 Parents attended residential school           
  No -          
  Unsure −4.44 3.86 −1.15 −12.02, 3.13 0.251      
  At least one parent 1.39 3.60 0.39 −5.66, 8.44 0.700      
 Location           
  Prince George -          
  Chase 6.03 5.32 1.13 −4.41, 16.46 0.260      
  Vancouver −2.81 2.93 −0.96 −8.55, 2.92 0.338      
 High school education or higher 7.25 3.73 1.94 −0.06, 14.55 0.053      
 In a relationship −7.00 4.27 −1.64 −15.37, 1.36 0.102      
Childhood maltreatment severity  
Emotional abuse           
 None -      -     
 Low/Moderate 2.86 3.53 0.81 −4.05, 9.77 0.419 - - - - -
 Severe 1.93 3.57 0.54 −5.07, 8.93 0.590 - - - - -
Physical abuse           
 None -      -     
 Low/Moderate 5.60 3.77 1.48 −1.80, 12.99 0.140 - - - - -
 Severe 2.06 3.13 0.66 −4.08, 8.19 0.513 - - - - -
Sexual abuse           
 None -      -     
 Low/Moderate −1.01 3.90 −0.26 −8.74, 6.53 0.796 - - - - -
 Severe 2.59 3.07 0.84 −3.43, 8.61 0.400 - - - - -
Emotional neglecta           
 None -      -     
 Low/Moderate −5.44 3.19 −1.70 −11.69, 0.82 0.090 −5.48 3.19 −1.72 −11.73, 0.78 0.088
 Severe −12.96 4.01 −3.23 −20.83, −5.09 0.001 −13.34 4.04 −3.30 −21.25, −5.42 0.001
Physical neglect           
 None -      -     
 Low/Moderate 1.35 3.85 0.35 −6.20, 8.90 0.727 - - - - -
 Severe −1.38 3.864 −0.357 −8.95, 6.20 0.721 - - - - -
Cultural connectedness
 Family often/always lived by traditional cultureb 7.96 2.55 3.13 2.97, 12.95 0.002 7.70 2.64 2.92 2.53, 12.87 0.004
 Traditional language often/always spoken at homec 10.66 2.41 4.43 5.94, 15.38 <0.001 10.52 2.45 4.29 5.72, 15.33 <0.001
 Know how to speak traditional languaged           
  No -      -     
  A little bit 1.70 2.45 0.69 −3.09, 6.49 0.25 2.28 2.46 0.93 −2.55, 2.71 0.178
  Yes 13.37 4.19 3.19 5.15, 21.58 0.001 13.06 4.19 3.12 4.85, 21.27 0.001
 Often/always lived by traditional culture in past six monthse 7.15 2.76 2.59 1.74, 12.55 0.010 6.50 2.88 2.26 0.86, 12.14 0.025
 Participated in traditional ceremoniesf 3.44 2.04 1.68 −0.56, 7.45 0.095 2.68 2.08 1.29 −1.40, 6.76 0.199
Other protective factors in the past six months
 Accessed drug/alcohol treatmentg 3.48 2.22 1.57 −0.87, 7.82 0.118 4.84 2.29 2.11 0.35, 9.34 0.036
 Accessed any counsellingh 3.86 2.38 1.62 −0.80, 8.52 0.105 4.21 2.38 1.77 −0.46, 8.89 0.079
 Tried quitting drugsi 4.72 2.79 1.69 −0.75, 10.19 0.092 4.98 2.85 1.75 −0.60, 10.57 0.075
Risk factors in the past six months
 Slept on streets for >3 nights −4.55 2.99 −1.52 −10.40, 1.31 0.130 - - - - -
 Daily crack smokingj −5.95 2.56 −2.32 −10.97, −0.92 0.021 −5.42 2.67 −2.03 −10.66, −0.18 0.044
 Injected drugsk −4.41 2.65 −1.66 −9.60, 0.79 0.098 −4.12 2.75 −1.50 −9.50, 1.27 0.136
 Sex work involvement −4.15 3.11 −1.33 −10.24, 1.95 0.185 - - - - -
 Did not always use condoms with casual partners −0.36 4.136 −0.09 −8.47, 7.74 0.936 - - - - -
 Did not always use condoms use with regular partners 4.48 5.10 0.88 −5.52, 14.48 0.383 - - - - -
 Sexually transmitted infection −1.16 5.04 −0.23 −11.04, 8.73 0.818 - - - - -
 Sexual assaultl −14.61 6.96 −2.10 −28.24, −0.98 0.037 −14.42 6.97 −2.07 −28.09, −0.76 0.041
 Blackouts from drinkingm −5.75 2.65 −2.17 −10.97, −0.56 0.032 −6.19 2.77 −2.23 −11.62, −0.75 0.027
 Binge drinking −1.54 3.11 −0.49 −7.63, 4.56 0.625 - - - - -
 HIV-positive serostatus −0.18 3.85 −0.05 −7.73, 7.36 0.960 - - - - -
 HCV-positive serostatus 0.32 3.05 0.10 −6.63, 6.34 0.920 - - - - -
 Psychological distress −1.37 1.42 −0.97 −4.14, 1.40 0.333      
  1. SD = standard deviation
  2. a,d,h,lAdjusted model included confounders age and sex
  3. b,j,mAdjusted model included confounders age, sex, education level, and childhood emotional neglect
  4. c,e,kAdjusted model included confounders age, sex, and emotional neglect
  5. f,gAdjusted model included confounders age, sex, education level, relationship status, and emotional neglect
  6. iAdjusted model included confounders age, sex, education level, and having ever been in foster care
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