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Table 3 Proportion of induction factors’ score as per food advertisement categories

From: Reading the mind of children in response to food advertising: a cross-sectional study of Malaysian schoolchildren’s attitudes towards food and beverages advertising on television

Influencing factors Advertisement Recognition Favourite Advertisement Purchase Request Product Preference
Core Non-core Core Non-core Core Non-core Core Non-core
M (IQR) M (IQR) M (IQR) M (IQR) M (IQR) M (IQR) M (IQR) M (IQR)
Overall 0.78 0.93 0.44 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.56–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.44) (0.40–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
Duration of TV viewinga
 <3 h (n = 211) 0.67 0.93 0.33 0.67 0.33 0.60 0.33 0.67
(0.56–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.47–0.80) (0.11–0.44) (0.40–0.73) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.80)
 ≥3 h (n = 191) 0.78 1.00 0.44 0.80 0.33 0.67 0.44 0.80
(0.56–0.89) (0.87–1.00) (0.33–0.67) (0.60–0.93) (0.22–0.44) (0.47–0.80) (0.33–0.56) (0.67–0.87)
Gender
 Boys (n = 174) 0.67 0.93 0.33 0.73 0.33 0.63 0.44 0.73
(0.44–0.89) (0.85–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.58–0.87) (0.19–0.44) (0.40–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
 Girls (n = 228) 0.78 0.93 0.44 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.67
(0.56–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.44) (0.40–0.73) (0.22–0.55) (0.55–0.80)
Ethnic
 Malay (n = 154) 0.89 1.00 0.44 0.80 0.33 0.67 0.44 0.80
(0.67–1.00) (0.93–1.00) (0.33–0.67) (0.60–0.93) (0.22–0.56) (0.47–0.80) (0.33–0.67) (0.60–0.93)
 Chinese (n = 125) 0.67 0.93 0.33 0.67 0.22 0.53 0.33 0.67
(0.56–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.11–0.44) (0.47–0.80) (0.11–0.44) (0.36–0.70) (0.22–0.44) (0.53–0.80)
 Indian (n = 123) 0.56 0.80 0.44 0.73 0.22 0.60 0.33 0.67
(0.33–0.78) (0.73–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87) (0.11–0.44) (0.40–0.73) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.80)
Age
 Younger children (n = 136) 0.67 0.93 0.44 0.73 0.33 0.67 0.44 0.73
(0.47–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.67) (0.60–0.93) (0.22–0.56) (0.47–0.80) (0.25–0.67) (0.60–0.87)
 Older children (n = 266) 0.78 0.93 0.33 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.56–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.44) (0.40–0.73) (0.22–0.56) (0.58–0.87)
Body Mass Index, BMI
 Severely wasted and wasted (n = 44) 0.78 0.93 0.33 0.73 0.33 0.53 0.33 0.67
(0.56–0.89) (0.87–1.00) (0.25–0.56) (0.53–0.80) (0.22–0.44) (0.40–0.73) (0.33–0.56) (0.55–0.85)
 Normal (n = 219) 0.78 0.93 0.44 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.56–0.89) (0.87–1.00) (0.22–0.67) (0.53–0.93) (0.11–0.44) (0.47–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
 Possible risk of overweight (n = 63) 0.78 0.93 0.33 0.73 0.22 0.53 0.44 0.80
(0.56–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.33) (0.40–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
 Overweight and obese (n = 76) 0.72 0.93 0.33 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.70
(0.44–0.89) (0.75–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.80) (0.22–0.53) (0.40–0.73) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.80)
TV Set in Bedroom
 No TV in bedroom (n = 318) 0.78 0.93 0.44 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.56–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.44) (0.40–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
 TV in bedroom (n = 84) 0.78 1.00 0.44 0.73 0.33 0.63 0.39 0.39
(0.56–0.89) (0.87–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87) (0.22–0.44) (0.40–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.85)
Physical Activity Level (PAL)a
 PAL ≤1 h (n = 246) 0.67 0.93 0.39 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.44–0.89) (0.87–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.44) (0.40–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
 PAL >1 h (n = 156) 0.78 0.93 0.44 0.70 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.56–0.89) (0.87–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.22–0.44) (0.40–0.80) (0.33–0.56) (0.55–0.87)
Pocket Moneya
 RM 2.50 and less or ≤ USD 0.80 per day (n = 175) 0.67 0.93 0.44 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.56–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.67) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.44) (0.40–0.73) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
 More than RM 2.50 or > USD 0.80 per day (n = 227) 0.78 0.93 0.33 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.56–0.89) (0.87–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.22–0.44) (0.40–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
Internet Surfing Time (ST)a
 ST ≤30 min (n = 220) 0.67 0.93 0.33 0.73 0.22 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.44–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.44) (0.40–0.78) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
 ST >30 min (n = 182) 0.78 0.93 0.44 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.56–1.00) (0.87–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.22–0.44) (0.40–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87)
Household Income
 Low [≤RM 2300 or ≤ USD 720 per month] (n = 190) 0.78 0.93 0.44 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.44 0.73
(0.56–0.89) (0.80–1.00) (0.22–0.67) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.47) (0.40–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
 Medium and high [>RM2300 or > USD 720 per month] (n = 212) 0.78 0.93 0.33 0.73 0.33 0.60 0.39 0.67
(0.56–0.89) (0.87–1.00) (0.22–0.56) (0.53–0.87) (0.11–0.44) (0.42–0.80) (0.22–0.56) (0.60–0.87)
  1. M = median, IQR = interquartile range, core = core foods, non-core = non-core foods
  2. Note: Core foods are defined as low-calorie, nutrient-dense food products, while non-core foods are foods high in fat, refined sugars, and salt (HFSS) [33]
  3. aCategorisation for influencing factors was based on median of subjects
  4. *Significance for core to non-core food in each induction factor comparison were recorded as p < 0.001