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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by gender and exposure to downsizing (N = 3503)

From: Depressive symptoms as a cause and effect of job loss in men and women: evidence in the context of organisational downsizing from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health

  Men Women
Characteristic Displaced workers (N = 112) Layoff survivors (N = 754) No downsizing (N = 758) *p value Displaced workers (N = 84) Layoff survivors (N = 708) No downsizing (N = 1087) *p value
Age, years: mean ± SD 50.5 ± 10.4 49.0 ± 9.8 50.3 ± 10.0 0.032 49.2 ± 11.2 49.2 ± 9.9 50.3 ± 9.8 0.074
Education     <0.001     <0.001
 Mandatory 19 (17.0) 83 (11.0) 91 (12.0)   17 (20.2) 48 (6.8) 60 (5.5)  
 High school 77 (68.7) 460 (61.0) 398 (52.5)   49 (58.3) 333 (47.0) 517 (47.6)  
 University 16 (14.3) 211 (28.0) 269 (35.5)   18 (21.4) 327 (46.2) 510 (46.9)  
Marital status     0.088     0.003
 Married/cohabiting 56 (50.0) 424 (56.2) 454 (59.9)   33 (39.3) 380 (53.7) 626 (57.6)  
 Single 56 (50.0) 330 (43.8) 304 (40.1)   51 (60.7) 328 (46.3) 461 (42.4)  
Permanence of employment at baseline     <0.001     0.002
 Permanent 98 (87.5) 718 (95.2) 734 (96.8)   72 (85.7) 673 (95.1) 1026 (94.4)  
 Non-permanent 14 (12.5) 36 (4.8) 24 (3.2)   12 (14.3) 35 (4.9) 61 (5.6)  
Employment at follow-up     <0.001     <0.001
 Gainfully employed 41 (36.6) 742 (98.4) 758 (100)   41 (48.8) 686 (96.9) 1087 (100)  
 Not gainfully employed 71 (63.4) 12 (1.6) 0 (0.0)   43 (51.2) 22 (3.1) 0 (0.0)  
Downsizing scale     <0.001     <0.001
 Minor (less than 8 %) 30 (26.8) 394 (52.2) n.a.   32 (38.1) 465 (65.7) n.a.  
 Larger (≥8 %) 82 (73.2) 360 (47.8) n.a.   52 (61.9) 243 (34.3) n.a.  
Past redundancies     <0.001     <0.001
 Survived layoff or lost job 36 (32.1) 162 (21.5) 41 (5.4)   25 (29.8) 146 (20.6) 56 (5.1)  
 No 76 (67.9) 592 (78.5) 717 (94.6)   59 (70.2) 562 (79.4) 1031 (94.9)  
Long-term sickness     <0.001     <0.001
 Yes 5 (4.5) 2 (0.3) 0 (0.0)   4 (4.8) 6 (0.9) 2 (0.2)  
 No 107 (95.5) 752 (99.7) 758 (100)   80 (95.2) 702 (99.1) 1085 (99.8)  
Depression at baseline     0.009     0.004
 No depression (score <10) 82 (73.2) 616 (81.7) 649 (85.6)   54 (64.3) 527 (74.4) 856 (78.7)  
 Depression symptoms (score 10–16) 23 (20.5) 115 (15.2) 91 (12.0)   19 (22.6) 135 (19.1) 177 (16.3)  
 Major depression (score 17–24) 7 (6.3) 23 (3.1) 18 (2.4)   11 (13.1) 46 (6.5) 54 (5.0)  
Depression at follow-up     <0.001     <0.001
 No depression (score <10) 83 (74.1) 633 (84.0) 676 (89.2)   54 (64.3) 526 (74.3) 880 (81.0)  
 Depression symptoms (score 10–16) 18 (16.1) 99 (13.1) 64 (8.4)   20 (23.8) 129 (18.2) 152 (14.0)  
 Major depression (score 17–24) 11 (9.8) 22 (2.9) 18 (2.4)   10 (11.9) 53 (7.5) 55 (5.0)  
  1. Note: Values in the table are numbers (percentages) and means ± SD. SD = standard deviation. n.a. = not applicable
  2. *p values from Pearson’s χ2 test for categorical variables or from analysis of variance for continuous variables
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