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Table 3 Associations between screen time and parental rules/style reported by children and parents, in total sample

From: Associations between parental rules, style of communication and children’s screen time

Outcome Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Standardized B 95 % CI Standardized B 95 % CI Standardized B 95 % CI
TV/DVD (hrs/day), child reported       
 Rules (yes vs no) −0.126 (−0.159; −0.093) −0.101 (−0.136; −0.066) −0.112 (−0.149; −0.075)
 Controlling style - - 0.004 (−0.031; 0.039) −0.007 (−0.044; 0.030)
 Autonomy-supportive style - - −0.084 (−0.121; −0.047) −0.07 (−0.109; −0.031)
Computer/game consoles (hrs/day), child reported       
 Rules (yes vs no) −0.09 (−0.123; −0.057) −0.071 (−0.106; −0.036) −0.067 (−0.104;-0.030)
 Controlling style - - 0.038 (0.003; 0.073) 0.031 (−0.006;0.068)
 Autonomy-supportive style - - −0.077 (−0.112; −0.042) −0.06 (−0.099; −0.021)
TV/DVD (hrs/day), parent reported       
 Rules (yes vs no) −0.10 (−0.137; −0.063) −0.093 (−0.130; −0.056) −0.091 (−0.128; −0.054)
 Controlling style    −0.033 (−0.070; 0.004) −0.032 (−0.069; 0.005)
 Autonomy-supportive style    0.012 (−0.025; 0.049) 0.01 (−0.027; 0.047)
Computer/games console (hrs/day), parent reported       
 Rules (yes vs no) −0.03 (−0.067; 0.007) −0.028 (−0.067; 0.011) −0.025 (−0.064; 0.014)
 Controlling style    0.13 (0.095; 0.165) 0.12 (0.085; 0.155)
 Autonomy-supportive style    −0.041 (−0.078; −0.004) −0.038 (−0.075; −0.001)
  OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95%CI
Perceived excessive TV/DVD time, child reported (dichotomous)     
 Rules (yes vs no) 0.922 (0.786; 1.081) 0.973 (0.820; 1.153) 0.999 (0.841; 1.186)
 Controlling style    1.146 (1.079; 1.216) 1.142 (1.076; 1.213)
 Autonomy-supportive style    0.996 (0.933; 1.064) 1.004 (0.940; 1.073)
Perceived excessive computer/games console time, child reported (dichotomous)    
 Rules (yes vs no) 1.218 (1.025; 1.446) 1.102 (0.918; 1.324) 1.102 (0.918; 1.324)
 Controlling style    1.201 (1.130; 1.276) 1.200 (1.129; 1.275)
 Autonomy-supportive style    1.017 (0.949; 1.091) 1.022 (0.952; 1.096)
Perceived excessive TV/DVD time, parent reported (dichotomous)     
 Rules (yes vs no) 0.192 (1.016; 1.445) 1.183 (0.974; 1.437) 1.196 (0.983; 1.455)
 Controlling style    1.354 (1.280; 1.433) 1.349 (1.274; 1.427)
 Autonomy-supportive style    0.970 (0.878; 1.071) 0.978 (0.885; 1.081)
Perceived excessive computer/games console time, parent reported (dichotomous)    
 Rules (yes vs no) 1.430 (1.171; 1.747) 1.406 (1.123; 1.760) 1.395 (1.112; 1.748)
 Controlling style    1.341 (1.266; 1.420) 1.339 (1.264; 1.419)
 Autonomy-supportive style    0.977 (0.874; 1.091) 0.975 (0.872; 1.091)
  1. B regression coefficient, OR odds ratio, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval
  2. Model 1 – adjusted for country, age and sex
  3. Model 2 – Model 1 + styles included
  4. Model 3 – Model 2 + further adjusted for education
  5. Bold = significant