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Table 4 Risk factors for external deaths among adults

From: Patterns and risk factors for deaths from external causes in rural Malawi over 10 years: a prospective population-based study

Variable Adult males (≥15 years) Adult females (≥15 years)
Cases (%) Control (%) Odds ratioa P-valueb Cases (%) Control (%) Odds ratio P-value
(n = 77) (n = 1584) (95 % CI)   (n = 19) (n = 342) (95 % CI)
Main household income         
 Farming 30 (39.0) 676 (42.7) Reference   7 (36.8) 149 (43.5) Reference  
 Fishing 11 (14.3) 100 (6.3) 2.45 (1.17–5.14) 0.02 1 (5.3) 29 (8.5) 0.74 (0.08–6.55) 0.08
 Business/other 31 (40.3) 637 (4.2) 1.12 (0.66–1.88) 0.68 8 (42.1) 138 (40.4) 1.20 (0.41–3.51)  
 Missing 5 (6.5) 171 (10.8)    3 (15.8) 26 (7.6)   
Occupation         
 Farmer 46 (59.7) 993 (62.7) Reference   9 (47.4) 255 (74.6) Reference  
 Fisherman 11 (14.3) 92 (5.8) 2.92 (1.42–5.98) 0.003     
 Other 17 (22.1) 411 (26.0) 0.81 (0.44–1.52) 0.52 8 (42.1) 63 (18.4) 4.04 (1.22–13.4) 0.02
 Missing 3 (3.9) 88 (5.6)    2 (10.5) 24 (7.0)   
Dwelling construction         
 Best 13 (16.9) 340 (21.5) 0.73 (0.36–1.46) 0.37 6 (31.6) 77 (22.5) Reference  
 2 13 (16.9) 223 (14.1) 1.10 (0.53–2.27) 0.80 2 (10.5) 59 (17.3) 0.48 (0.09–2.51) 0.39
 3 23 (29.9) 466 (29.4) Reference   4 (21.1) 106 (31.0) 0.59 (0.16–2.17) 0.43
 Worst 21 (27.3) 379 (23.9) 1.08 (0.58–2.00) 0.81 5 (26.3) 71 (20.8) 0.56 (0.26–3.96) 0.84
 Missing 7 (9.1) 176 (11.1)    2 (10.5) 29 (8.4)   
Not having enough food         
 No 28 (36.4) 792 (50.0) Reference   6 (31.6) 165 (48.3) Reference  
 Yes 14 (18.2) 259 (16.4) 1.46 (0.75–2.86) 0.26 3 (15.8) 54 (15.8) 1.93 (0.44–8.48) 0.87
 Missing 35 (45.5) 533 (33.6)    10 (52.6) 123 (36.0)   
Individual’s level of schooling         
 None/primaryc 47 (61.0)) 924 (58.3) Reference   16 (84.2) 275 (80.4) Reference  
 Secondary 29 (37.7) 632 (39.9) 0.91 (0.55–1.49) 0.70 3 (15.8) 60 (17.5) 0.98 (0.25–3.96) 0.87
 Missing 1 (1.3) 28 (1.8)    0 7 (2.1)   
HIV status         
 Negative 26 (33.8) 995 (62.8) Reference   6 (31.6) 228 (66.7)   
 Positive 5 (6.5) 89 (5.6) 2.05 (0.72–5.79) 0.18 0 20 (5.8)   
 Missing 46 (59.7) 500 (31.6)    13 (68.4) 94 (27.5)   
  1. aOdds ratio with 95 % confidence interval controlled for age, sex and time period (by matching and conditional logistic regression)
  2. bP-value: result of Wald test of association of each category
  3. cThere were few cases with no schooling hence combined with primary education group
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