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Table 4 The association between exposure to multiple forms of violence and symptoms of psychological ill-health in the clinical samples (Model 1)

From: Lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation and symptoms of psychological ill health: a cross-sectional study of Swedish male and female clinical and population samples

   Women   Men
    Symptoms of psychological ill-health    Symptoms of psychological ill-health
    Few (score =1–6) Many (score 7–18) No of forms of violence*   Few (score =1–6) Many (score 7–18)
N = 922 (40.3 %) N =222 (9.7 %) N = 560 (33.1 %) N = 125 (7.4 %)
   N OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI N OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Civil state Partner 1932 1   1    1349 1    
  Single 356 1.2 0.9–1.5 1.6 1.1–2.4   341 1.4 1.03–1.8 2.0 1.2–3.1
Education ≥13 873 1   1    539 1    
  <12 1415 1.0 0.8–
1.2
1.2 0.8–1.7   1151 1.2 0.97–1.6 1.4 0.9–2.3
Occupation Employed 1562 1   1    793 1    
  Retired, sick-leave social welfare 404 1.4 1.03–1.8 4.3 2.8–6.6   806 1.1 0.8–1.4 2.3 1.4–3.8
  Other 322 1.1 0.8–1.5 1.8 1.1–2.8   91 1.4 0.8–2.4 4.7 2.0–10.9
Agegroup <29 373 1   1    107 1    
  30–39 512 0.8 0.6–1.1 0.9 0.5–1.5   138 0.7 0.4–1.3 2.1 0.7–6.3
  40–49 469 0.8 0.6–1.1 0.9 0.5–1.5   170 1.0 0.5–1.8 4.7 1.6–13.5
  >50 934 0.6 0.5–0.8 0.5 0.3–0.8   1275 0.6 0.4–1.02 1.4 0.5–3.9
Form of violence No violence 1527 1   1   No violence 1103 1    
Emotional 106 2.4 1.5–3.8 10.0 5.4–18.6 One form 418 1.9 1.5–2.4 3.1 1.9–5.0
  Physical 166 1.8 1.3–2.6 4.1 2.3–7.3 ≥Two forms 169 5.1 3.4–7.6 19.6 11.3–34.2
  Sexual 129 1.5 1.1–2.3 4.2 2.2–8.0       
  Emo + Phys 107 3.2 2.0–5.2 12.8 6.9–24.0       
  Emo + Sex 60 7.1 3.3–15.3 26.7 10.8–66.1       
  Phys + Sex 54 1.9 1.02–3.5 7.6 3.4–17.1       
  Emo + Phys + Sex 139 8.8 4.8–16.1 53.9 27.4–106.0       
Model fit:   R2 = 0.17 (Cox & Snell), 0.20 (Nagelkerke).   R2 = 0.13 (Cox & Snell), 0.15 (Nagelkerke).
Model χ2(28) = 423.69 Model χ2(18) = 228.17
  1. Note: Reference category is “no symptoms of psychological ill-health” (score 0). Emo = Emotional violence, Phys = Physical violence, Sex = Sexual violence. Occupation “other” = Unemployed, student, pregnant or parental leave