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Table 4 Mean level of self-management comparison between chronically ill people who have no social problems and chronically ill people who have social problems, unadjusted means versus PSM adjusted estimatesa

From: Do everyday problems of people with chronic illness interfere with their disease management?

  Unadjusted means (n) Model-based (adjusted) estimates
  No social problems Social problems Mean difference 95 % CI p-values
Self-management      
 Symptom management 3.01 (1053) 2.83 (422) −.16 −.31– −.02 0.026
 Active involvement 3.36 (1059) 3.29 (422) −.06 −.16–.05 n.s.
 Coping 2.86 (1062) 2.13 (424) −.37 −.48– −.25 0.000
  1. aModels are adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidity, perceived general health and physical limitations