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Table 3 Association between individual/family environmental variables and television or computer time in five European countries (multivariate model)

From: Individual and family environmental correlates of television and computer time in 10- to 12-year-old European children: the ENERGY-project

  BELGIUM GERMANY GREECE HUNGARY NORWAY
  Television Computer Television Computer Television Computer Television Computer Television Computer
Β, SE (95 % CI) Β, SE (95 % CI) Β, SE (95 % CI) Β, SE (95 % CI) Β, SE (95 % CI) Β, SE (95 % CI) Β, SE (95 % CI) Β, SE (95 % CI) Β, SE (95 % CI) Β, SE (95 % CI)
Individual variables
 Perception of recommendations 22.28, 1.93 0.10, 0.01 16.31, 2.33 0.12, 0.02 14.38, 1.98 0.08, 0.02 25.35, 2.26 0.12, 0.01 18.05, 2.41 0.10, 0.02
(18.51;26.06) (0.07;0.12) (11.58;20.69) (0.07;0.16) (10.50;18.25) (0.05;0.11) (20.92;29.78) (0.09;0.15) (13.34;22.77) (0.07;0.13)
 Attitude NS 0.04, 0.01 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
(0.01;0.06)
 Preference NS 0.07, 0.02 10.58, 2.78 0.09, 0.02 9.64, 2.68 0.07, 0.02 NS 0.04, 0.01 9.39, 2.99 0.09, 0.02
(0.04;0.10) (5.14;16.02) (0.05;0.13) (5.82;14.99) (0.04;0.10) (0.01;0.07) (3.53;15.26) (0.05;0.12)
 Self-efficacy NS −0.04, 0.01 −5.05, 1.91 NS −6.21, 1.76 −0.07, 0.01 −5.52, 1.54 −0.03, 0.01 −9.63, 1.98 −0.03, 0.01
(−0.06; −0.01) (−8.78; −1.31) (−9.66; −2.76) (−0.09; −0.04) (−8.54; −2.50) (−0.05; −0.01) (−13.50; −5.76) (−0.06;0.00)
 Habit NS 0.03, 0.01 NS 0.05, 0.02 NS NS NS 0.06, 0.01 NS 0.06, 0.01
(0.00;0.05) (0.01;0.08) (0.03;0.08) (0.04;0.09)
 Agreement with rules NS NS NS NS −0.02, 0.01 NS NS NS NS
(−0.05;0.00)
Social environmental variables
 Parental behaviour NS NS NS NS NS 7.96, 3.15 NS 9.61, 3.83 NS
(1.78;4.14) (2.11;17.11)
 Parental co-participation 4.07, 1.38 NS 4.77, 1.75 NS NS 0.02, 0.01 5.47, 1.52 0.04, 0.01 5.23, 2.02 NS
(1.37;6.78) (1.33;8.20) (0.00;0.04) (2.48;8.45) (0.02;0.05) (1.27;9.19)
 Parental subjective norm NS NS NS NS NS −5.04, 1.93 NS NS NS
(−8.83; −1.26)
 Parental perception of recommendations NS 0.13, 0.02 18.74, 3.47 NS 0.08, 0.02 8.59, 2.58 0.06, 0.02 9.98, 3.42 0.08, 0.03
(0.06;0.16) (11.95;25.53) (0.04;0.12) (3.50;13.60) (0.01;0.10) (3.28;16.68) (0.03;0.13)
 Parental avoidance of negative modeling behaviour NS −0.03, 0.02 −0.02, 0.01
(−0.07;0.00) (−0.04;0.00)
Political environmental variables
 Parental strictness 1 −5.16, 1.46 NS NS NS NS −0.03, 0.01 NS NS NS NS
(−8.02; −2.30) (−0.06; −0.01)
 Parental strictness 2 NS NS NS −0.07, 0.03 −9.64, 2.68 NS NS −0.05, 0.02 NS NS
(−0.13; −0.02) (−14.90; −4.39) (−0.08; −0.01)
 Parental rules NS 5.41, 1.62 NS 4.72, 1.65 3.47, 1.52 NS
(2.23;8.58) (1.50;7.95) (0.48;6.45)
 Child participation in setting rules NS NS
 Parental monitoring −8.04, 2.18 −0.04, 0.02 NS NS NS NS NS
(−12.31; −3.77) (−0.07; −0.01)
 Parental negotiation NS NS −6.57, 2.32 NS NS NS −0.04, 0.02
(−11.12; −2.01) (−0.08; −0.01)
Economic environmental variables
 Parental education NS NS NS NS NS
Physical environmental variables
 TV
  Number of TV’s in the household NS n/a NS n/a NS n/a NS n/a NS n/a
  Having a TV in the bedroom NS n/a NS n/a NS n/a NS n/a NS n/a
  Having a TV in the kitchen n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
 Computer
  Number of computers in the household n/a n/a NS n/a n/a NS n/a NS
  Having an own computer n/a NS n/a NS n/a n/a 0.10, 0.03 n/a NS
(0.04;0.16)
  Number of consoles in the household n/a 0.03, 0.01 n/a NS n/a NS n/a NS n/a
(0.00;0.04)
  Having an own console n/a n/a NS n/a NS n/a NS n/a NS
  1. Multivariate model, adjusted for age and sex; SE standard error, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval, NS significant in univariate model, but not in multivariate model, − not significant in univariate model and therefore not included in multivariate model, n/a not applicable