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Table 4 How group-based physical activity interventions are effective

From: Understanding for whom, under what conditions, and how group-based physical activity interventions are successful: a realist review

  Program description Theory Strategies
Positive effect group-versus-individuals/aggregate effect (n =39) Intervention Duration Delivery Staff Theory Group Structure
 16.28 weeks (±14.55 weeks)  Research assistant (n=2)  Team-building (n=2)  Status of group members (n =9)
Fidelity to Classes  Health professional (n=4)  Social Cognitive Theory (n =13)  Group roles (n =7)
 79.41 % (±10.98)  Extension agent (n=3)  Group-mediated Cognitive  Group norms (n =14)
 Not reported (n=23)  Group exercise leader (n=5)  Behavioral Model (n=6) Group Environment
Fidelity to Behavioral Components  Community leader (n=4)  Social support Framework (n=5)  Distinctiveness/Team Identity (n =12)
 83.01 % (±11.05)  Onsite coordinator (n=3)  Goal Setting Theory (n=3)  Group Size (n =18)
 Not reported (n=33)  Trained peer leader (n=7)  Transtheoretical Model (n=2)  Leadership (n =12)
Average Total Contact Duration  Health professional and community leaders (n=1)  Social Ecological Theory (n=2)  Proximity (n =17)
 65.75 hours (±84.59)  Research assistant and group exercise leader (n =1)  Social Determinants of Health (n =9) Group Processes
Type of physical activity prescribed    Other (n =4)  Group goals (n =12)
 Aerobic (n=14)  Not reported (n =9)  Single theory (n =11)  Cooperation (n =4)
 Strength Training (n =1) Contact Type  Multiple theory (n =7)  Competition (n =10)
 Combination (n=3)  In-Person (n =21)  Atheoretical (n =21)  Interaction and communication (n =25)
 Not reported (n =21)  In-Person plus another mode (n =11) Targeted Structural Modification  Social Support (n=22)
 Non-In-Person (n =5)  Social (n=29) Individual Strategies
 Not specified (n =1)  Environmental (n=1)  Goal setting (n=25)
 Both (n=9)  Action planning (n =11)
 Problem solving (n =12)
 Self-monitoring (n =22)
 Feedback (n =3)
Group-versus-group interventions (n =9) Intervention Duration Delivery Staff  Team-building (n =2) Group Structure
 30.00 weeks (±14.283 weeks)  Research assistant (n =3)  Social Cognitive Theory (n =3)  Status of group members (n =1)
Average Total Contact Duration  Health professional (n =1)  Transtheoretical Model (n =1)  Group roles (n =3)
 17.37 hours (±23.65)  Group exercise leader (n =1)  Social Determinants of Health (n =1)  Group norms (n=3)
 Not reported (n=1)  Trained peer leader (n =3)   Group Environment
Fidelity to Classes  Research assistant and Extension agent (n =1)  Single theory (n =3)  Distinctiveness/Team Identity (n =3)
 66.93 % (±10.98) Contact Type  Multiple theory (n =3)  Group Size (n =3)
 Not reported (n=23)  In-Person (n=4)
Fidelity to Behavioral Components  In-Person plus another mode (n=2)  Atheoretical (n =3)  Leadership (n =5)
 Not reported (n=9)  Non-In-Person (n =0) Targeted Structural Modification  Proximity (n =2)
Type of physical activity prescribed  Not specified (n =3)  Social (n =6)  Group Processes
 Environmental (n =0)  Group goals (n=4)
 Aerobic (n=4)  Cooperation (n=1)
 Strength Training (n=1)  Both (n =3)  Competition (n=1)
 Not reported (n=4)  Interaction and communication (n =5)
 Social Support (n =5)
Individual Strategies
 Goal setting (n =7)
 Action planning (n =2)
 Problem solving (n =4)
 Feedback (n =3)
 Self-monitoring (n =3)
No increase in physical activity (n=4) Intervention Duration Delivery Staff  Social Cognitive Theory (n =2) Group Structure
 55.50 weeks (±39.75 weeks)  Health professional (n=1)  Transtheoretical Model (n =2)  Status of group members (n =1)
 Group roles (n =1)
Average Total Contact Duration  Trained peer leader (n=1)  Social Ecological Theory (n=1)  Group norms (n =2)
 19.50 hours (±16.97)  Not reported (n=2)  Single theory (n=1) Group Environment
 Distinctiveness/Team Identity (n=3)
Fidelity to Classes Contact Type  Multiple theory (n=2)  Group Size (n =1)
 26.50 % (±37.47)  In-Person (n=4)  Atheoretical (n=1)  Leadership (n =3)
 Not reported (n=2) Targeted Structural Modification  Proximity (n =1)
Fidelity to Behavioral  Social (n=2) Group Processes
Components  Environmental (n=1)  Interaction and communication (n =3)
 62.50 % (±10.67)  Both (n=1)  Social Support (n =2)
 Not reported (n=2) Individual Strategies
Type of physical activity prescribed  Goal setting (n =2)
 Aerobic and strength training (n=1)  Problem solving (n =1)
 Not reported (n=3)  Self-monitoring (n =2)