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Table 2 OR and its 95 % CI of some potential risk factors and confounders of obesity in preschool children using univariate conditional logistic regression

From: Family-related risk factors of obesity among preschool children: results from a series of national epidemiological surveys in China

Variables Factor level of analysis Survey 1996 Survey 2006
N OR (95 % CI) P N OR (95 % CI) P
Intrauterine and perinatal factors        
Birth weight <2500, 2500–4000 (ref.), 4000 1846    3176   
  2500–4000 1556 1 - 2658 1 -
  <2500 31 1.060 (0.508–2.212) 0.8770 52 0.994 (0.575–1.717) 0.9815
  4000 259 1.876 (1.427–2.467) <0.0001 466 1.880 (1.525–2.319) <0.0001
Gestational age <37, 37–42 (ref.), 42 1804    3244   
  37–42 1644 1 - 2956 1 -
  <37 85 1.113 (0.715–1.734) 0.6354 134 1.214 (0.853–1.730) 0.2820
  42 75 1.642 (1.016–2.654) 0.0436 154 1.117 (0.807–1.546) 0.5030
No of fetuses 1 (ref.), 2 (twins) - - - 3252 0.889 (0.513–1.541) 0.6750
Mode of delivery Caesarean, vaginal (ref.) - - - 3234 1.381 (1.195–1.595) <0.0001
Gestational diabetes No (ref.), yes 1788 0.801 (0.316–2.029) 0.6374 3192 1.647 (0.902–3.009) 0.1011
Gestational hypertension No (ref.), yes 1798 1.838 (1.231–2.743) 0.0025 3200 2.392 (1.539–3.717) <0.0001
Feeding patterns in the first 4 monthsa Breast feeding, formula/milk (ref.) 1846 0.917 (0.731–1.150) 0.4522 3200 0.834 (0.713–0.976) 0.0234
Dietary habit        
Appetite Good, average (ref.), bad 1826    3236   
  Average 447 1 - 1102 1 -
  Good 1335 14.326 (9.651–21.266) <0.0001 2074 10.995 (8.622–14.02) <0.0001
  Bad 44 0.519 (0.143–1.883) 0.3123 60 0.209 (0.072–0.602) 0.0038
Eating speedb Fast, average (ref.), slow 1820    3224   
  Average 1126 1 - 1674 1 -
  Fast 444 8.282 (5.739–11.952) <0.0001 947 7.404 (5.763–9.511) <0.0001
  Slow 250 0.136 (0.083–0.222) <0.0001 603 0.227 (0.171–0.302) <0.0001
Snack Not at all, occasional, often 1808 1.164 (1.008–1.343) 0.0380 3208 0.948 (0.861–1.044) 0.2789
Vegetable intake Not at all, occasional, often 1762 0.849 (0.720–1.003) 0.0532 3236 0.869 (0.766–0.986) 0.0292
Behavior and lifestyle        
Activity preferred Outdoor play, TV viewing (ref.), indoor game 1194    -   
  TV viewing 484 1 - - - -
  Outdoor play 479 0.596 (0.446–0.795) <0.0004 - - -
  Indoor game 231 0.876 (0.629–1.221) 0.4337 - - -
Daily time for outdoor activity Time (hr):≧2 -    3232   
  <half - - - 367 1 -
  Half-1 - - - 1143 0.955 (0.753–1.212) 0.5286
  1-2 - - - 1126 0.845 (0.729–0.979) 0.0247
  2 - - - 596 1.019 (0.773–1.343) 0.8923
Type/intensity of outdoor activityc Running or jumping, walking or cycling, slow walking or sitting (ref.) 1212    3146   
  slow walking or sitting 148 1 - 808 1 -
  Running or jumping 659 0.757 (0.588–0.974) 0.0302 2000 0.725 (0.609–0.863) <0.0001
  Walking or cycling 405 0.674 (0.351–1.294) 0.1275 338 1.130 (0.869–1.469) 0.3601
Daily time for TV viewingd Time (hr):≧2 -    3184   
  <half - - - 447 1 -
  Half-1 - - - 1164 1.224 (0.978–1.532) 0.0776
  1–2 - - - 1117 1.373 (1.171–1.610) <0.0001
  2 - - - 456 1.996 (1.602–2.487) <0.0001
Daily sleep time. Unit 0.5 h 1806 0.935 (0.894–0.978) 0.0033 3198 0.942 (0.906–0.981) 0.0035
Night sleep time Unit 0.5 h - - - 3198 0.890 (0.846–0.936) <0.0001
Parents and family-related factors        
Family typee Nuclear family (ref.), extended, single-parent -    3242   
  Nuclear family - - - 1788 1 -
  Extended - - - 1401 1.241 (1.075–1.433) 0.0021
  Single-parent - - - 53 0.756 (0.426–1.341) 0.3372
Raising kids mainly by Parents (ref.), grandparents, or nannies/nursery 1622    3250   
  Parents 1035 1 - 2427 1 -
  Grandparents 399 1.277 (1.010–1.614) 0.0016 702 1.408 (1.181–1.678) 0.0002
  Nannies/nursery 188 0.606 (0.287–1.279) 0.1842 121 1.308 (0.779–2.194) 0.0818
Mother education College and over, high school and below (ref.) 1794 0.851 (0.667–1.086) 0.1936 3242 0.731 (0.625–0.855) <0.0001
Father education College and over, high school and below (ref.) 1798 0.674 (0.521–0.871) 0.0025 3222 0.675 (0.575–0.791) <0.0001
Family income in local Upper, middle (ref.), lower 1828    3130   
  Middle 1559 1 - 2968 1 -
  Upper 232 1.040 (0.772–1.402) 0.7955 85 1.546 (0.967–2.473) 0.0668
  Lower 37 1.317 (0.687–2.524) 0.4111 77 1.948 (1.223–3.103) 0.0049
Family income per month RMB:<1500, 1500–10,000 (ref.), 10,000 -    3100   
  1500–10,000 - - - 2683 1 -
  <1500 - - - 189 1.435 (1.042–1.977) 0.0260
  10,000 - - - 228 1.430 (1.076–1.901) 0.0152
Father BMIf <24 (ref.), 24 1804 2.525 (2.041–3.125) <0.0001 3152 2.164 (1.866–2.510) <0.0001
Mother BMIf <24 (ref.), 24 1790 4.031 (3.072–5.288) <0.0001 3192 2.538 (2.075–3.104) <0.0001
Mother family history of obesityg No (ref.), yes 1826 2.644 (2.110–3.313) <0.0001 - - -
Father family history of obesityg No (ref.), yes 1816 2.640 (2.122–3.284) <0.0001 - - -
  1. BMI Body mass index, OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. aBreast feeding including exclusive and partial with >1/2 of total intake
  3. bEating speed, fast (<15 min), average (15–30), slow (30)
  4. cRunning including running, jumping, climbing stair, et al.; sitting meaning not or hardly playing when others did
  5. dTime for TV viewing including video game in 2006
  6. eParents-child based nuclear family, three generations based (including grandparents) extended, single-parent based
  7. fBMI calculated as weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared based on self-reported weight and height, and overweight in Chinese adults was defined using the cutoffs of 24 kg/m2
  8. gObesity history among three generations of parents, including their grandparents, their parents and their siblings, brothers and sisters