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Table 2 Characteristics of the PROtEuS study population, Montreal, Canada, 2005-2011

From: Metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer risk in a population-based case–control study in Montreal, Canada

Characteristics Cases (N = 1937) Controls (N = 1995)
n % n %
Age at index date     
 <65 years 1009 52.1 896 44.9
 ≥65 years 928 47.9 1099 55.1
Ancestry     
 European 1696 87.6 1686 84.6
 Sub-Saharan 130 6.7 90 4.5
 Asian 24 1.2 73 3.7
 Greater Middle East 45 2.3 99 5.0
 Other (Hispanics, Autochtones) 29 1.5 31 1.6
 Do not know 12 0.3 14 0.7
Last prostate cancer screening (PSA and/or DRE)     
 No 3 0.2 191 9.6
 ≤2 yrs before index date 1917 99.0 1511 75.7
 >2 yrs before index date 1 0.1 235 11.8
 Do not know 16 0.8 58 2.9
First-degree family history of prostate cancer     
 No 1419 73.3 1739 87.2
 Yes 452 23.3 199 10.0
 Don't know 66 3.4 57 2.9
Annual family income     
 <$C10 000–29 999 490 25.3 497 25.0
 $C30 000–79 999 874 45.1 872 43.8
 $C80 000- > $C100 000 426 22.0 428 21.5
 Preferred not to responda 132 6.8 186 9.3
 Do not know 15 0.8 9 0.4
Education     
 Primary 449 23.2 429 21.5
 Secondary/College 891 46.1 953 47.8
 University 592 30.6 611 30.7
Physical activityb     
 Not very active 444 22.9 503 25.2
 Moderately active 518 26.8 545 27.3
 Very active 974 50.3 946 47.4
Daily frequency of fruits and vegetables consumptionc     
 ≤6 477 24.8 498 25.0
 ]6-9] 507 26.3 497 25.0
 ]9-12] 431 22.4 497 25.0
 >12 511 26.5 498 25.0
Smoking (pack-years), mean  ± SD 22.3 ±27.1 23.6 ±27.3
Alcohol intake (drink-years), mean  ± SD 75.2 ±121.6 73.8 ±136.6
Body Mass Index 2 yrs ago (kg/m2), mean  ± SD 26.8 ±4.0 27.2 ±4.4
Waist circumference (cm), mean  ± SD 98.6 ±13.6 98.5 ±14.3
History of dyslipidemiac 576 29.7 727 36.4
 Ever use of statin 337 17.4 358 17.9
History of hypertensionc 732 37.9 842 42.3
Type 2 diabetesc 205 10.6 348 17.4
 Diagnosed ≥5 years ago 140 7.2 246 12.3
 Ever use of Metformin 102 5.3 201 10.1
History of benign prostate hyperplasiac 510 26.3 411 20.6
Ever use of Aspirinc 308 15.9 367 18.4
Ever use of 5α-reductase inhibitorsc 33 1.7 46 2.3
  1. aSubjects who preferred not to answer were more often from the Middle East and had a lowest educational level than others
  2. bTaking into account the reported level of physical activity at home and at work, and the lifetime frequency of leisure activities
  3. cTwo years before diagnosis / interview
  4. DRE, Digital rectal examination; PSA, Prostate specific antigen; SD, Standard deviation