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Table 2 Description of included interventions and effects

From: Socioeconomic gradients in the effects of universal school-based health behaviour interventions: a systematic review of intervention studies

Study name Main reference Country SES measurea Intervention type Outcomes tested Effective? Outcomes analysed bv SES Gradient in effect
AFLY5 Kipping et al. 2014 UK School IMD Pupil IMD Education and parental involvement Physical activity (accelerometer) and diet outcomes No effects on primary outcomes. Significant change in 3 secondary outcomes. Physical activity (accelerometer) and diet outcomes Some subgroup differences in both directions (e.g. effect on snacking only in low SES, and on central obesity only in high SES). No significant interaction effects. Neutral e
ASSIST Campbell et al. 2008 UK FSM FAS Education and environment Smoking status Significantly lower rise in smoking rates in intervention group. Smoking status Neutral (OR for interaction = 0.99) c Neutral
School fruit scheme Bere et al. 2010 Norway Parental education Environment Fruit consumption and vegetable consumption Significant increases in fruit intake – no change in vegetable intake Fruit consumption and vegetable consumption Neutral (statistics not reported) Neutral
Crone et al. 2011 Crone et al. 2011 Netherlands Parental education and student education level Education Smoking Increased intention not to smoke and lower smoking uptake after transition to secondary school. Smoking Neutral (statistics not reported) Neutral
EHealth4us Bannink et al. 2014 Netherlands Parental education, employment and family affluence Education Smoking and alcohol (as secondary measures – primary outcomes mental health) No significant main effects All outcomes Neutral (statistics not reported) Neutral
Energize Rush et al. 2012 New Zealand School deprivation decile Education, environment and family/community involvement Diet and physical activity (as secondary outcomes – primary outcomes obesity measures) No significant main effects Obesity and blood pressure only Larger effects on BP and body-fat in more affluent schools Negative
ESFA Ariza et al. 2008 Spain Parental education and ‘family economic capacity index’. Neighbourhood SES Education, environment and family/community involvement Smoking Significantly lower rate of increase in smoking in experimental group. Smoking Bigger effect in high FECI. No clear difference by parental education Negative
EUDap Faggiano et al. 2010 Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden Area (school) level SES measure Education, environment and family/community involvement Smoking and alcohol (plus cannabis and other drugs) Significant effects found for daily cigarette smoking and episodes of drunkenness in the past 30 days for at least one episode, or three or more episodes.. Alcohol only Larger effects on alcohol consumption measures in more deprived schools. Positive
FatAintPhat Ezendam et al. 2012 Netherlands School type (vocational or pre-university) Education Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fruit and vegetable intake, snacking and sugar sweetened beverages (plus BMI, waist circumference and fitness) No effect on primary outcomes (BMI). But positive effect on some secondary outcomes (fruit and vegetable intake, snacking and sugar sweetened beverages). Negative effect on step counts. Fruit and vegetable intake, snacking and sugar sweetened beverages (only variables with a significant and + ve main effect) Effect on SSB only in higher SES schools. No other significant interactions Negative
HEIA Grydeland et al. 2012 Norway Parental education Education, environment and family/community involvement Physical activity (accelerometer) and dietary outcomes (plus obesity outcomes) Mixed All outcomes Greater effect on BMI for higher SES. No interactions for behaviours. Negative
KOPS Plachta-Danielzik 2011 Germany Parental education Education, environment and family/ community involvement Healthy eating index, physical activity and media time (as secondary outcomes – primary outcomes obesity measures) No significant main effects All outcomes Bigger effect on BMI for higher SES. No interactions for behaviours. Negative
Avall Llargues et al. 2011 Spain Mother’s/Father’s education Education, and family/community involvement Physical activity and diet (as secondary outcomes – primary outcomes obesity measures) Lower rise in BMI in intervention group. Twenty dietary and physical activity secondary outcomes tested. BMI only Effects on BMI only in high SES Negative
STOPP Marcus et al. Sweden Parental education Education, environment and family/community involvement Physical activity and diet (as secondary outcomes – primary outcomes obesity measures) Effects on BMI among those who were overweight at baseline only. Mixed effects on 8 secondary diet outcomes. Diet outcomes Bigger effect on dairy product and fast food intake in low SES. Positive
MYTRI Perry et al. 2009 India School type (government vs private) Education, environment and family/community involvement Smoking Lower increases in smoking or bidi uptake in intervention group. Smoking Neutral (statistics not reported) Neutral
PAS Koning et al. 2009 Netherlands Parental education and school type (vocational vs academic) Education, environment and family/community involvement Alcohol use (Heavy weekly, weekly and frequency) At first follow-up, only the combined student–parent intervention showed substantial and statistically significant effects on heavy weekly drinking, weekly drinking and frequency of drinking. At second follow-up these results were replicated, except effects on heavy weekly drinking. Alcohol use (WD and HWD) Bigger effect on HWD in low-educated adolescents. No moderation of effect on WD. Positive
Promise Stallard et al. 2012 UK Family affluence Education Alcohol No effects on primary outcome, or substance use (measured as secondary) Mental health outcomes only Neutral (OR for interaction = −0.45(−1.11 to 0.21)) Neutral
PSFBI Murphy et al. 2011 UK School and individual FSM Environment Diet (breakfast skipping and healthy/unhealthy items) Significant improvements in diet quality at breakfast and attitudes toward breakfast. No differences in breakfast skipping, fruit and veg intake or sweets and crisps. All outcomes Bigger effect in low SES for breakfast skipping and healthy breakfast items. No other significant interactions. c Positive
Smart Lunchbox Evans et al. 2010 UK FSM Environment and family/community involvement Diet outcomes Intervention group children were provided with more fruit, vegetables, dairy food and starchy food other than bread. Weight of savoury snacks (crisps and other salted snacks) lower for children in the intervention group. Weights of sweetened drinks and confectionery did not change All outcomes Neutral (statistics not reported) Neutral
SPACE Toftager et al. 2014 Denmark Income and ‘parental SES’ Environment Physical activity, fitness, active transport and obesity No significant main effects All outcomes except active travel Neutral (statistics not reported) Neutral
Pro Children d Te Velde et al. 2008 Netherlands, Spain and Norway Parental education Education, environment and family/community involvement Diet outcomes Significant effects for fruit and veg intake found at first follow-up. One year later, a significant impact was only observed in Norway. All outcomes Non-significant interaction effects (data unreported) Effects on F&V in high and low SES. Neutral
  1. aBolded item is item used for analysis of differential effects where multiple SES measures collected
  2. bconclusion confirmed by reanalysis conducted as part of project TEENAGE
  3. cno analysis of differential effect by original authors, but re-analysed for Project TEENAGE (Lien et al. 2012)
  4. ddata obtained from authors as unpublished at time of writing