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Table 4 Odds ratios between lung cancer and selected chemical agents in analyses restricted to construction workers, in the pooled set of studies, stratified by smoking status, and test for interaction

From: Lung cancer risk among workers in the construction industry: results from two case–control studies in Montreal

Chemical agenta Smoking status P-valueg
Never-low smokers (n = 229) Medium-heavy smokers (n = 506)
Never exposedc Ca/Cod ORe 95 % CIf Never exposedc Ca/Co ORe 95 % CI
Soil dust          
Ever exposed 41/80 23/85 1.1 0.6–2.1 196/91 154/65 1.1 0.8–1.5 0,9687
Substantially exposedb   13/18 2.9 1.0–8.9   63/14 1.8 0.9–3.6 0,8496
Asbestos          
Ever exposed 44/113 20/52 1.2 0.7–2.2 248/111 102/45 1.1 0.8–1.6 0,6778
Substantially exposed   5/5 2.3 0.4–14.5   20/7 1.8 0.7–4.9 0,7166
Crystalline silica          
Ever exposed 29/80 35/85 1.0 0.6–1.7 141/79 209/77 1.3 0.9–1.7 0,2623
Substantially exposed   17/18 3.1 1.0–9.6   54/19 1.4 0.7–2.7 0,0223
Portland cement          
Ever exposed 42/110 22/55 1.4 0.8–2.5 241/105 109/51 1.0 0.7–1.4 0,3067
Substantially exposed   13/14 4.0 1.2–13.4   39/13 1.3 0.6–2.8 0,4819
Calcium oxide          
Ever exposed 52/147 12/18 1.8 0.8–3.7 300/130 50/26 1.0 0.6–1.4 0,1193
Substantially exposed   9/10 3.2 0.9–12.0   27/8 1.7 0.7–4.1 0,5410
Calcium sulfate          
Ever exposed 36/95 28/70 1.0 0.6–1.8 191/92 159/64 1.2 0.9–1.6 0,8699
Substantially exposed   14/22 1.3 0.5–3.6   62/22 1.6 0.9–2.9 0,9670
  1. aCriteria for selection of chemical agents: at least ten cases or ten controls with substantial exposure in the pooled studies; prevalence of exposure greater than 5 % among construction workers; and prevalence among controls at least twice as high in construction workers as in other workers
  2. bSubstantial exposure comprised subjects who had been exposed with a probable or definite reliability to medium or high concentrations for more than 5 % of their workweek and for at least 5 years
  3. cFor each chemical agent, the reference category consists of construction workers who were never exposed to the agent
  4. dNumber of cases/number of controls substantially exposed
  5. eOR Odds ratio adjusted for age, median family income for census tract, comprehensive smoking index, respondent status, education level and ethnicity and binary indicator for study
  6. f95 % confidence interval
  7. gSignificance of the interaction term between smoking (binary) and occupational exposure (1) ever vs never exposed or 2) not exposed/not substantially exposed/substantially exposed, in the regression models