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Table 3 Possible familial predictors of current smoking among 13 and 15 year old adolescents (subsample of respondents living in intact families, N = 2528)

From: Familial determinants of current smoking among adolescents of Lithuania: a cross-sectional survey 2014

Predictors Non-smokers n (%) Smokers n (%) Univariable logistic regression Multivariable logistic regressiona
OR CI OR CI
Gender:
Boys 1075 (83.3) 215 (16.7) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Girls 1126 (91.0) 112 (9.0) 0.50 0.39–0.63 0.61 0.45–0.83
Age:
13-year-old 1283 (92.2) 109 (7.8) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
15-year-old 918 (80.8) 218 (19.2) 2.80 2.19–3.57 2.58 1.92–3.45
Family FAS:
Low 665 (85.4) 114 (14.6) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Medium 985 (88.7) 125 (11.3) 0.74 0.56–0.97 0.81 0.56–1.18
High 493 (87.1) 73 (12.9) 0.86 0.63-1.19 1.15 0.83-1.60
Satisfaction with family relationships:     
High 1899 (88.6) 245 (11.4) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Low 268 (78.4) 74 (21.4) 2.14 1.60–2.86 1.89 1.27–2.83
Communication with the father:
Easy 1281 (86.3) 203 (13.7) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Difficult 774 (89.0) 96 (11.0) 0.78 0.60–1.02 0.56 0.38–0.80
Communication with the mother:
Easy 1577 (88.1) 214 (11.9) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Difficult 485 (84.8) 87 (15.2) 1.32 1.01–1.73 1.18 0.81–1.71
Father's monitoring:      
High 1123 (91.0) 111 (9.0) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Low 1059 (83.1) 215 (16.9) 2.05 1.61–2.62 1.19 0.83–1.69
Mother's monitoring:      
High 1430 (92.3) 119 (7.7) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Low 752 (78.4) 207 (21.6) 3.31 2.60–4.22 2.79 1.98–3.92
Quality of communication in the family:     
Good 1395 (89.0) 172 (11.0) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Poor 787 (83.6) 154 (16.4) 1.59 1.26–2.01 0.99 0.71–1.38
School-related parental support:      
High 1180 (91.2) 114 (8.8) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Low 1002 (82.5) 212 (17.5) 2.19 1.61–2.92 1.40 1.01–1.95
Family time together:      
Often 1046 (89.6) 122 (10.4) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Rare 1136 (84.3) 204 (15.2) 1.54 1.21–1.96 0.98 0.71–1.35
Father's emotional support:      
High 1296 (89.7) 149 (10.3) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Low 905 (83.6) 178 (16.4) 1.71 1.35–2.16 1.36 0.96–1.91
Mother's emotional support:      
High 1384 (89.0) 171 (11.0) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Low 817 (84.0) 156 (16.0) 1.55 1.22–1.95 0.72 0.51–1.01
Father's parenting style:     
Authoritative-reciprocal 931 (89.1) 114 (10.9) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Permissive-indulgent 896 (88.1) 121 (11.9) 1.10 0.84–1.45 0.78 0.45–1.33
Authoritarian-repressive 157 (80.9) 37 (19.1) 1.93 1.28–2.89 0.80 0.47–1.35
Permissive-neglectful 177 (81.2) 41 (18.8) 1.89 1.23–2.80 1.21 0.64–2.28
Mother's parenting style:     
Authoritative-reciprocal 1018 (88.8) 129 (11.2) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Permissive-indulgent 939 (86.5) 146 (13.5) 1.23 0.95–1.59 1.07 0.49–2.35
Authoritarian-repressive 130 (82.3) 28 (17.7) 1.70 1.09–2.66 1.20 0.55–2.68
Permissive-neglectful 82 (83.7) 16 (16.3) 1.54 0.87–2.71 0.91 0.37–2.24
Electronic media communication with parents:
Often 943 (85.8 156 (14.2) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Rare 1258 (88.0) 171 (12.0) 0.82 0.66-1.04 0.66 0.50-0.88
Seeing of the father:
Every day 1667 (87.2) 245 (12.8) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Not every day 492 (88.0) 67 (12.0) 0.93 0.70–1.24 1.20 0.85–1.70
Seeing of the mother:
Every day 2045 (87.7) 288 (12.3) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Not every day 120 (81.1) 28 (18.9) 1.66 1.08–2.55 0.90 0.53–1.53
  1. aMethod = Enter. Significant relationships are provided in bold