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Table 3 Bivariate associations between HIV status and explanatory variables

From: Family planning use and fertility desires among women living with HIV in Kenya

  Baseline Endline
  HIV-positive HIV-negative   HIV-positive HIV-negative  
  % (N) % (N) p-values % (N) % (N) p-values
Desire more children       
   No 80 (201) 44 (727)   82 (66) 57 (300) ***
   Yes 18 (46) 52 (843) *** 15 (12) 42 (218)  
   Undecided 2 (4) 4 (65)   3 (2) 1 (6)  
Average number of children desired (standard deviation) 3.0 (1.4) 3.1 (1.0) 0.323 3.2 (1.1) 3.3 (1.0) 0.278
Timing of next birth       
   1–2 years 52 (24) 20 (169)   36 (5) 29 (64) 0.568
   3 years or more 48 (22) 80 (674) *** 64 (9) 71 (160)  
Intention regarding last birth       
   Wanted to be pregnant then 57 (142) 70 (1,144)   33 (4) 71 (72) **
   Mistimed (wanted to be pregnant later) 28 (70) 21 (347) *** 25 (3) 24 (24)  
   Unwanted (wanted no more children) 15 (38) 9 (142)   42 (5) 5 (5)  
Used family planning in last 12 months       0.772
   No 1 (3) 7 (121) *** 10 (16) 10 (102)  
   Yes 99 (247) 93 (1,505)   90 (140) 91 (966)  
Dual protection in last 12 months       
   No 59 (146) 97 (1,461) *** 13 (14) 92 (879) ***
   Yes 41 (101) 3 (44)   87 (90) 8 (72)  
Facility type       
   Hospital 94 (237) 67 (1,105)   96 (150) 67 (721) ***
   Health center 6 (14) 33 (531) *** 4 (6) 33 (347)  
Age of respondents       
   15–24 years 4 (11) 32 (526) *** 1 (1) 15 (161) ***
   25–34 years 51 (128) 51 (838)   44 (69) 56 (598)  
   35+ years 45 (112) 17 (272)   55 (86) 29 (309)  
Marital status       
   Single 22 (56) 3 (45)   21 (33) 4 (38) ***
   Married 62 (155) 96 (1,572) *** 57 (89) 93 (994)  
   Divorced/separated/widowed 16 (40) 1 (19)   22 (34) 3 (36)  
Education       
   Primary and below 71 (178) 58 (955) ** 71 (108) 58(612) **
   Secondary and higher 29 (73) 42 (681)   29 (43) 42 (434)  
Household SES       
   Poor 56 (140) 47 (771) 0.011 56 (88) 51 (546) 0.217
   Non-poor 44 (111) 53 (865)   44 (68) 49 (522)  
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; X2 and Fisher’s Exact test were used to test the association between HIV status and explanatory variables