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Table 3 Quantitative findings

From: Understanding how environmental enhancement and conservation activities may benefit health and wellbeing: a systematic review

Ref Ref N. Method Quality Physiological Physical Mental and emotional Quality of life Social/other
BTCV 2009 [36] 122 uBA Weak    ↑ (↑ →)  
BTCV 2010b [38] 136 uBA Weak     (→→)  
Eastaugh et al. 2010 [33] 8 uBA Weak     →(→→→)  
Moore et al. 2006 [44]a 102 Case–control Weak    ↑↓→→ ↑↑↑→→→→ ↑↑↑↑↑→→→→→→→→→→→→→→
O'Brien et al. 2010 [54] 88 uBA Weak     
Pillemer et al. 2010 [45]a 2630 Cohort Weak   ↑↑ ↑ →  
Barton et al. 2009 [46] 19 uBA Weak    →→   
Reynolds 1999a [47] 16 uBA Weak ↑→→→→→→→→    (↑↑→→→→→→)  
Small Woods 2011 [40] 7 uBA Weak     →→(→→→→→→)  
Wilson 2009 [32] 77 uBA Weak   → → (→→ →→→→→→)  
Yerrell 2008 [41] 194 uBA Weak     ↑↓  
  1. aComparative design. () Domains of the SF-36/12. ↑ Significant positive change.
  2. → No significant difference. ↓ Significant negative change. Each individual arrow refers to an individual outcome as detailed in the study (e.g. study 47 included 9 different physiological measures, 1 of which was positive and 8 inconclusive).