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Table 1 Study Characteristics

From: Understanding how environmental enhancement and conservation activities may benefit health and wellbeing: a systematic review

Primary ref Ref Additional paper refs Study type and report type Country Design N % women Mean age Participants Activity descriptors and environment Intensity Comparator Quality grading
Barton et al. 2009 [46] [91, 92] Quantitative, thesis and peer reviewed articles UK uBA 19 26 ~60 Volunteers Conservation. Rural natural environment. NR Active recreation Weak
Brooker and Brooker 2008a [42]a   Quantitative, unpublished case study UK N of 1 uBA 1 100 49 Volunteers Green Gym. Rural natural environment. “Regular” Other physical activity Weak
Brooker and Brooker 2008aa [43]a   Quantitative, unpublished case study UK N of 1 uBA 1 100 49 Volunteers Green Gym. Rural natural environment. “Regular” Other physical activity Weak
BTCV 2009 [36]   Quantitative, unpublished evaluation report UK uBA 122 47 9 School pupils Green Gym. Mixed natural environments. 1 – 1.5 hours per week N/A Weak
Eastaugh et al. 2010 [33]   Quantitative, unpublished evaluation report UK uBA 8 NR NR Referred and voluntary Conservation. Woodlands. NR N/A Weak
Moore et al. 2006 [44]   Quantitative, peer reviewed article Australia Case control 102 37 55 Volunteers Conservation. Rural natural environment. NR Community members not involved in conservation Weak
Pillemer et al. 2010 [45]   Quantitative, peer reviewed article Canada Cohort 2630 57 45 NR Conservation. No detail on environment. NR Alternative volunteering Weak
Reynolds 1999a [47] [93] Quantitative, peer reviewed article and unpublished evaluation report UK uBA 16 49 60 Volunteers Green Gym. Rural natural environment. 3 hours twice a week N/A Weak
Small Woods 2011 [40] [94] Quantitative, unpublished evaluation reports UK uBA 7 100 NR Referred Woodland management. Woodlands. NR N/A Weak
Yerrell 2008 [41]   Quantitative, unpublished evaluation report UK uBA 194 40 45 Volunteers and referred Green Gym. Mixed natural environments. 1-4 hours once a week N/A Weak
Birch 2005 [48]   Qualitative, peer reviewed article UK Interviews, ethnographic 3 67 42 Volunteers Green Gym. Rural natural environment. 3 hrs twice weekly N/A Poor
Burls 2007 [34]   Qualitative, peer reviewed article UK Focus groups, ethnographic 11 NR NR Volunteers Conservation gardening. Urban natural environments. NR N/A Poor
Carter and O'Brien 2008 [39] [95] Qualitative, unpublished evaluation report UK “qualitative evaluation” NR NR NR Referred Habitat Restoration. Rural natural environments, woodlands 1-2 days per week for 6 months N/A Poor
Christie 2004 [49]   Qualitative, unpublished report Australia Interviews 18 NR 30 Volunteers Bush Regeneration. Rural natural environment. NR N/A Poor
Gooch 2005 [35]   Qualitative, peer reviewed article Australia Interviews 85 NR NR Volunteers Conservation activities. Natural environments, water catchments. NR N/A Poor
Halpenny and Caissie 2003 [50] [96] Qualitative, peer reviewed articles Canada Interviews 10 50 40 Volunteers Restoring habitats. Rural natural environments. 3-17 day vacations N/A Good
Miller et al. 2002 [37]   Qualitative, peer reviewed article USA Focus groups, ethnographic 30 NR 19 Students Trail creation. Urban natural environments. 1 day per week for 10 weeks N/A Poor
O'Brien et al. 2011 [53]   Qualitative, peer reviewed article UK Ethnographic 10 40 40 Volunteers Wildlife gardening. Urban natural environment. 2-3 days per week N/A Good
Townsend and Marsh 2004 [52]   Qualitative, unpublished evaluation report Australia Interviews, focus groups NR 18+ 33 65 Volunteers Restoration of reserve. Rural natural environment. NR N/A Poor
Townsend 2006 [51] [97] Qualitative, peer reviewed article and unpublished evaluation report Australia Interviews 35 NR NR Volunteers Maintenance of creek and reserves. Rural natural environment. NR N/A Poor
BTCV 2010 [38]   Mixed, unpublished evaluation report UK uBA 136 NR NR Volunteers and referred Green Gym. Rural natural environment. NR N/A Weak
Interviews 19 16 NR Poor
O'Brien et al. 2010 [54] [98] Mixed, peer reviewed article and unpublished evaluation report UK uBA 88 28 43 Volunteers Vegetation Clearing. Rural natural environment. 0 - 33 hrs per month N/A Weak
Interviews, ethnographic Good
Wilson 2009 [32]   Mixed, unpublished evaluation report UK uBA 77 26 41 Referred Conservation. Rural natural environment, woodlands. 3 hours per week for 12 weeks N/A Weak
Interviews Poor
  1. aStudies not included in the synthesis due to small n. uBA, uncontrolled Before and After study. N/A, Not Applicable. NR, Not Reported