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Table 2 Clustering of health-compromising behaviours in pregnant women at 1st trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and during pregnancy (follow-up)

From: The different effects of neighbourhood and individual social capital on health-compromising behaviours in women during pregnancy: a multi-level analysis

  Baseline (N=1057)     
N Health-compromising behaviours Smoking Alcohol consumption Inadequate diet   Observed prevalence (%) Expected prevalence (%) Ratio O/E 95 % CI
0 - - -   35.11 34.25 1.03 0.94;1.12
1 + - -   7.35 7.93 0.93 0.75;1.11
1 - + -   1.78 2.86 0.62 0.39;0.90
1 - - +   41.80 40.65 1.03 0.95;1.12
     Total 50.93 51.44 1.00 0.94;1.09
2 + + -   1.43 0.66 2.08* 1.29;3.18
2 + - +   7.93 9.42 0.84 0.69;1.00
2 - + +   2.36 3.40 0.71 0.49;0.99
     Total 11.72 13.48 1.15 0.99;1.33
3 + + +   2.14 0.79 2.48* 1.67;3.54
  Follow-up (N=1046)     
0 - - -   58.67 56.08 1.05 0.97;1.12
1 + - -   5.06 7.22 0.70 0.54;0.90
1 - + -   4.05 7.21 0.56 0.42;0.73
1 - - +   23.66 23.92 0.99 0.88;1.11
     Total 32.77 38.35 0.86 0.78;0.94
2 + + -   2.10 0.78 2.67* 1.76;3.89
2 + - +   2.88 3.08 0.92 0.65;1.27
2 - + +   2.18 2.57 0.85 0.56;1.22
     Total 7.16 6.43 1.11 0.89;1.36
3 + + +   1.40 0.33 4.39* 2.60;6.94
  1. +: health-compromising behaviours present; − : health-compromising behaviours absent; CI = Confidence Interval; * p < 0.05