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Table 2 Overview of open defection (OD) practices by different age, gender and occupational groups

From: Socio-cultural and behavioural factors constraining latrine adoption in rural coastal Odisha: an exploratory qualitative study

Age Gender Occupation Defecation places Preferred time of day, alone or group Preferred OD sites
0-5 years Both NA At home on ground or floor None Inside home, vacant places next door, road sides or village streets
5-16 years Both School students Field, bush None Vacant fields preferably closer to house
17-20 yearsa Girls School/ college students Field, bush In group, preferably in evening hours At sites close to house
17-20 yearsa Girls Non- students Field, bush In group Go far from the village during the post-harvest and summer season
17-20 yearsa Boys School / college students Field, bush No preferred time, alone or in small group River beds and canal embankments
Adult Men Farming Field, bush Morning, mostly alone Canal or river embankments; open fields
Adult Men Non-farming Field, bush Morning, mostly alone Road sides, canal embankments; fields next to water bodies
Adult Women Housewives Field, bush Mostly alone in the morning, but in groups in the evening Bamboo bush or bushy areas
Adult Women Newly married daughter-in-law Field, bush Accompanied by female family member (chaperone) very early (4-5 am) before dawn; in small group with family chaperone in evening (5-6 pm) Field closer to house in early morning; far from house in evening
Adult Men and women Elderly, disable or sick members Field, or in house (on bed, cloth, paper) Health condition determines the location of the OD site Close to house; in backyard
  1. aReferred to as “adolescents” in main text