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Table 2 Multivariate relationships between heat protection behaviour and significant risk factors

From: Heat protection behaviour in the UK: results of an online survey after the 2013 heatwave

Personal heat protection measures Number and percentage of respondents who always/often undertook the personal heat protection measure Significant risk factors (α = 0.05) Relative risk ratio [95 % CI]
Always keeping out of the sun between 1100 and 1500 N = 783 % = 52.4 Age group (base: 18–25)  
26-60 1.0 [0.4, 2.5]
61-75 2.7 [1.0, 7.7]
76+ 1.4 [0.5, 4.2]
Sex (base: male)  
Female 2.2 [1.3, 3.8]*
Ethnicity (base: Non White)  
White 1.9 [0.8, 4.8]
Location (base: South of England)  
East of England and the Midlands 0.7 [0.3, 1.4]
London 0.5 [0.2, 1.4]
North 0.6 [0.3, 1.5]
Scotland 0.1 [0.0, 0.3]*
Wales 1.2 [0.2, 5.7]
Northern Ireland 0.1 [0.0, 0.6]*
Education level (base: higher level/university qualification)  
A-Levels/vocational level 3 0.7 [0.4, 1.4]
GCSE O Levels/vocational level 2 1.1 [0.6, 2.0]
Other/ unknown qualification 0.4 [1.0, 1.4]
Income (base: <£15,000 gross yearly)  
£15,000 - £29,999 gross yearly 0.8 [0.4, 1.8]
£30,000 - £49,999 gross yearly 1.1 [0.5, 2.4]
> £50,000 gross yearly 1.0 [0.4, 2.5]
Always walk in the shade N = 893 % = 59.9 Sex (base: male)  
Female 2.9 [1.5, 5.5]
Location (base: South of England)  
Scotland 0.2 [0.0, 0.9]
Northern Ireland 0.1 [0.0, 0.5]
Always apply sunscreen N = 887 % = 59.4 Age group (base: 18–25)  
61-75 0.3 [0.1, 0.7]
76+ 0.2 [0.1, 0.7]
Sex (base: male)  
Female 4.2 [2.7, 6.6]
Ethnicity (base: Non White)  
White 4.1 [1.8, 9.4]
Income (base: <£15,000 gross yearly)  
£15,000 - £29,999 gross yearly 1.9 [1.1, 3.1]
£30,000 - £49,999 gross yearly 3.0 [1.6, 5.5]
Always avoid excess physical activity (heavy exercising, sports etc.) N = 1041 % = 69.6 Sex (base: male)  
Female 3.0 [1.3, 6.9]
Always have plenty of cold drinks N = 1248 % = 83.6 None  
Always avoid excess alcohol N = 968 % = 65.1 Sex (base: male)  
Female 2.9 [1.5, 5.6]
Education level (base: higher level/university qualification)  
Other/ unknown qualification 0.2 [0.1, 0.8]
Always keep an eye on ill or elderly people N = 596 % = 39.9 Sex (base: male)  
Female 1.6 [1.1, 2.3]
Education level (base: higher level/university qualification)  
O-level/vocational level 2 1.7 [1.1, 2.6]
Always keep an eye on babies N = 683 % = 45.8 None  
  1. *significant risk factor at α = 0.05