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Table 2 Risk-of-bias rating summary for studies investigating the effectiveness of food safety education interventions for consumers

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of food safety education interventions for consumers in developed countries

  No. of studies low/unclear/high risk
Criteria RCT (n = 17) NRT (n = 12) UBA (n = 50)
Random sequence generation 6/11/0 N/Aa N/Aa
Allocation concealment 11/6/0 9/3/0 N/Aa
Similarity of baseline outcomes 13/4/0 8/4/0 N/Aa
Similarity of baseline characteristics 10/6/1 8/4/0 N/Aa
Blinding of participants and personnel 6/11/0 4/8/0 N/Aa
Blinding of outcome assessment:    
 Knowledge 13/4/0 8/4/0 N/Aa
 Other outcomes 8/9/0 4/8/0 N/Aa
Blinding of participants to the research question/purpose N/Aa N/Aa 16/30/4
Independence of intervention effect from confounding bias 15/2/0 11/1/0 48/1/1
Valid/reliable outcome measurement 14/3/0 10/2/0 33/17/0
Incomplete outcome data:    
 Knowledge 12/2/3 8/3/1 31/19/0
 Other outcomes 12/2/3 8/3/1 30/20/0
Selective reporting 15/0/2 9/2/1 40/9/1
Other 14/3/0 12/0/0 48/2/0
Overall risk-of-bias:    
 Knowledge 8/6/3 7/4/1 34/15/1
 Other outcomes 8/6/3 7/4/1 33/16/1
  1. RCT randomized controlled trials, NRT non-randomized controlled trials, UBA uncontrolled before-and-after studies
  2. aN/A = These criteria not assessed for these study designs