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Table 1 Frequency and adjusted incident rate ratios of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions with 95 % confidence intervals by speed hump installation (pre, post), season and roadway characteristics

From: Installation of speed humps and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Toronto, Canada: a quasi-experimental study

  Number (%) Adjusted IRR
(95 % CI)
Outcome:   
 Collisions 1344 n/a
Primary exposure:   
 Speed hump implementation   
  Pre implementation 594 (44.2 %) 1.00
  Post implementation 750 (55.8 %) 0.78 (0.66, 0.91)
Covariates:   
 Season (month of collision):   
  Non-winter 596 (44.3 %) 1.00
  Winter 748 (55.7 %) 1.26 (1.12, 1.42)
Roadway characteristics (n = 404):   
 Road type:   
  Local 344 (84.1 %) 1.00
  Collector 60 (14.7 %) 1.56 (1.18 ,2.08)
 Neighbourhood:   
  Inner suburbs 159 (39.4 %) 1.00
  Pre-amalgamated City of Toronto 245 (60.6 %) 1.63 (1.23, 2.14)
 Land use mix:   
  Mean entropy score 0.26 (SD ± 0.21) 2.48 (1.42, 4.34)
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