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Table 4 Summary table on risk of bias of the included controlled before after studies (excludes two studies [35, 36] that could not be assessed)

From: A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes

CBA Allocation sequence generation Allocation adequately concealed Baseline outcome measurements similar Baseline characteristics similar Incomplete outcome data adequately addressed Knowledge of the allocated interventions adequately prevented Study adequately protected against contamination Study fee from selective outcome reporting Study free from other risks of bias
Jones 2005 [22] High risk High risk Low risk Unclear Unclear Low risk Unclear risk (selected Pueblo and surrounding counties as intervention sites, but possibility of contamination remains) Unclear risk (using surrogate indicator) Unclear risk (not sure if it has accounted for other changes during before/after)
Intermediate quality study
Zampetti 2013 [34] High risk High risk Low risk Unclear Unclear Low risk Unclear (due to nature of intervention) Unclear (using proxy indicator) High risk (has not taken into account other changes during study period)
Low quality study
  1. CBA Controlled Before-after