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Table 2 Studies included based on eligibility criteria: studies with increases in enforcement activities but without statistical models to account for those increases

From: A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes

Author, Year (study period) Objective, Design, Evaluation setting Intervention details: scope (national, state, community) message theme (tagline) delivery method cost other details Results/other information Summary value Follow-up period
Fell 2008 [23] Objective: Evaluate the impaired-driving demonstration projects conduced in 7 states. Indicators relative to surrounding states Compared to surrounding states, Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana, Michigan had statistically significant decreases in the Ratio, whereas in some States (Louisiana, Texas), there were increases in the Ratio. 12–18 months
 CITS Ratio: ratio of drinking drivers (BAC > =0.01) to nondrinking drivers (BAC = 0.00) in fatal crashes
 7 selected states in the US (Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Indiana, and Michigan) Use of paid media (+/− earned media):
Georgia, Louisiana, Tennessee, Texas, Indiana, Michigan VMT: alcohol-related fatalities (driver or pedestrian total BAC > 0.01) per 100 million
Sobriety checkpoints:
 Comparator (within-state comparison: Georgia, Tennessee, Michigan; neighboring states: selected nearby states, pooled; the rest of the nation, pooled). Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Indiana Georgia:
Saturation patrols:
Louisiana, Tennessee, Indiana, Michigan
Community education/partnership:
Pennsylvania, Michigan
Ratio: −14 % (p < 0.05), VMT −5 %
Ratio: 1 %, VMT15% (p < 0.05)
Ratio: −9 %, VMT: −2 %
Ratio: −11 %(p < 0.035), VMT: 1 %
Ratio: −13 %(p < 0.018), VMT: −20 % (p < 0.002)
Ratio: −14 % (p < 0.07), VMT −18 % (p < 0.003)
Ratio: 3 %, VMT: 5 %
Zwicker 2007a [24] Objective: Evaluate the effect of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration impaired driving high-visibility enforcement model in 2002 in West Virginia Alcohol-related fatalities in targeted counties: reduction of 0.99 lives each month. - 24 % (p = 0.01) Alcohol-related fatalities in targeted counties: − 24 % (p = 0.012) 18 months
 2000–2004, monthly
Alcohol-related fatalities in targeted countries for men 21–34yo: reduction of 0.09 lives per month (p = 0.79)
 Intervention period: July 2003- Dec 2004
 Comparison period: Jan 2000- June 2003 Mass Media:
Paid media (TV)
 Intervention site: 6 counties in West Virginia Enforcement: Statewide alcohol-related fatality trend: reduction of 1.6 fatalities per month (p = 0.20)
Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols
 Comparator site: 49 non-targeted counties
Zwicker 2007b [25] Objective: Evaluate Connecticut’s statewide impaired-driving publicity and enforcement campaign The overall alcohol-related fatality trend for the State: Net change in alcohol-related fatalities in the state: −36.4 % 18 months
 Jan 2000- Dec 2004, monthly Estimated reduction of 2.604 lives each month (p = 0.01) for the 18 mo. following the beginning of the campaign (Net change: lives saved during 18 mo., 36.4 % decrease)
Net change in alcohol-related fatalities among men 21–34 years old: −29.7 %
 Intervention phase: July 2003- Dec 2004, Comparison phase: Jan 2000- June 2003 Mass media:
Paid and earned media targeting men 18–34 years old
 Intervention site: Connecticut, USA Sobriety checkpoint The alcohol-related fatality trend for fatalities involving men 21 to 34 years old:
Estimated reduction in the number of fatalities by 1.568 lives each month for the 18 mo. following the beginning of the campaign (p < 0.03) compared to 0.16 lives per month saved in contiguous counties (Net change: 25 lives saved during 18months, 29.7 %)
 Comparator site: 3 neighboring states
Lacey 2008 [26] Objective: Evaluate NHTSA Checkpoint Strikeforce program done July-December of each year, 2002–2004. Alcohol-related fatal crashes in the intervention sites: −7.1 % relative to the nation as a whole (p = 0.119). In one State, West Virginia, the reduction was 16.7 % (p = 0.02) when compared to the Nation as a whole. Alcohol-related fatal crashes: −7.1 % 3 years
 1991–2004, annually
 Intervention sites: Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, District of Columbia Mass Media:
Paid and earned media. “Checkpoint Strikeforce. You Drink & Drive. You Lose.”
 Comparator: entire nation Enforcement:
Checkpoints. BAC measurements (Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia)
Agent 2002 [27] Objective: Document Number in 2002 compared to the average of the previous three years Alcohol/drug related crashes: −9 % 4 years (13 days per year)
 ITS the results of the “You Drink& Drive.
 Before intervention: 13 days around Labor day in1999–2001 You Lose” campaign. 1. The number of crashes in which alcohol and/or drugs were listed as a contributing factor or the driver was noted to be suspected of drinking: −9 % (not statistically significant) Number of injuries and fatalities resulting from alcohol/drug related crashes: −5 %
Checkpoints and saturated enforcement activity
 Intervention: 13 days around Labor day in 2002 Mass media:
Paid media: broadcast and cable television, radio (from 15 to 30 Aug, 2002), and outdoor billboards (15 Aug–15 Sep, 2002)
 Intervention site: Kentucky, USA
2. The number of injuries and fatalities resulting from these crashes: −5 %
 Comparator: none
Solomon 2008 [28] Objective: Evaluate the effect of the National 2006 Labor Day holiday campaign, “Drunk Driving. Over the Limit. Under Arrest.” Targeting age group 18 to 34 years old 1. The total number of alcohol-related fatalities: 17,602 in 2006 compared to 17,590 in 2005 (0.07 %). The total number of alcohol-related fatalities: 0.07 % increase (2005–2006) 4 months (Sep-Dec 2006)
 Intervention period: 3 weekends leading up to and around the Labor Day holiday period in 2006
2. The number of motor vehicle fatalities for male drivers (BAC 0.01 or higher) age 18 to 34: decreased from 5782 to 5654 (−2.21 %)
Mass Media:
1. Earned media (Aug 7- Sep 10)
 Intervention: 2006 2. Paid media (Aug 16–20; 23–27; Aug 30- Sep 3)
3. The number of motor vehicle fatalities for male drivers (BAC 0.08 or higher) age 18 to 34: decreased from 4996 to 4872 (−2.48 %)
 Comparaison: 2005
 Intervention site: USA (nationwide) Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols
 Comparator site: none
Beck 2009 [31] Objective: Evaluate Net change in three-year averages before and during campaign in Maryland: Alcohol-related total 6 years
crashes: 2.2 %
 CITS the effect of the Checkpoint Strikeforce campaign Total alcohol-related fatalities: 14.7 %
 Before intervention: 1999–2001, Intervention: 2002–2004 Mass Media: Alcohol-related total crashes: 2.2 % Alcohol fatalities as a percentage of total fatalities: Net change 3 %
Paid and earned media Alcohol-related injury crashes: −4.7 %
Enforcement: Alcohol-related fatality crashes: −2.7 %
 Intervention site: Maryland (Pennsylvania, Delaware, West Virginia, Virginia, District of Columbia) Sobriety checkpoints
Total alcohol-related fatalities: 14.7 %
Alcohol-related injured drivers: −3.8 %
 Comparator sites: Minnesota, Oregon, and Washington
Miller 2004 [30] Objective: Evaluation of three incremental CBT program approaches Mass media is estimated to have decreased in nighttime fatal or serious crashes decreased by 13.9 % (90 % CI = −26.1 to −0.1) nationally Nighttime fatal or serious crashes: −13.9 % 10 years
 Intervention (CBT): 1993~
 Intervention (media): 1995~ Mass Media: National anti-drunk-driving campaign with hard-hitting messages
 Intervention (CBT enhancement): 1996~
 Intervention sites: New Zealand (CBT enhancement in Northern Police Region) Enforcement: CBT checkpoints, (Northern Region) highly visible CBT through booze busses
NHTSA 2007 [32] Objective: Evaluation of the effect on the Total declines in yearly average of fatal crashes for alcohol-impaired drivers from 2002 to 2005 were slightly greater for the non-SES, as compared with the SES (a 5 % drop in non-SES compared to a 2 % decline in SES, net decline: 3 %). Net decline in yearly average of fatal crashes for alcohol-impaired drivers: −3 % 5 years
 CITS National Impaired Driving Crackdown Campaign targeting men 21 to 34 years old
 Before: 2001 and 2002
 After: 2004 and 2005
 Intervention sites: 13 Strategic Evaluation States (SES) (Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia) Mass Media: paid and earned media (done nationwide). Additional advertising done in
In the target group of 18–34 year-old-male drivers, the decline was greater in non-SES compared to SES (8.7 % in non-SES and 3.8 % in SES).
 Comparator sites: non-SES Enforcement: Sobriety checkpoints or saturation patrols in SES
Suriyawongpaisal 2002 [33] Objective: Evaluate the campaign against drink-driving and enforcement efforts Percentage of the traffic injury victims who were drivers with illegal BAC (0.05 or more): 14.6 % increase in 9 months (p = 0.20) Percentage of the traffic injury victims who were drivers with illegal BAC (0.05 or more): 14.6 % increase 9 months (assessed in alternating months)
 March-Nov 2002, alternating months Mass Media:
 Intervention sites: 4 of the 21 public hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand
 Comparator site: None
Active public education program at national scale (roadside posters; bumper; radio and TV programs or spots; public announcements; press reports), 1997
Highly visible sobriety check points, 1999
  1. BAC Blood Alcohol Concentration, CBT compulsory breath testing, CITS Controlled Interrupted Time Series, ITS Interrupted Time Series, NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, SES Strategic Evaluation States, VMT Vehicle Miles Travelled, US United States, TV Television