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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of coronary disease and total mortality of alcohol intake versus the lowest intake for women compared with men

From: Alcohol intake and associated risk of major cardiovascular outcomes in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies

Outcomes Subgroup Low alcohol intake Moderate alcohol intake Heavy alcohol intake
Coronary disease Country
US 1.24 (0.72–2.13) 2.17 (1.12–4.21)* 1.25 (0.52–3.01)
Other 0.98 (0.80–1.20) 0.89 (0.75–1.23) 0.87 (0.62–1.22)
Sample size
>10000 0.96 (0.80–1.16) 0.98 (0.73–1.30) 0.89 (0.63–1.25)
<10000 1.42 (0.82–2.45) 0.93 (0.49–1.78) 1.00 (0.40–2.49)
Adjusted physical activity
Yes 1.01 (0.80–1.27) 0.86 (0.66–1.12) 0.85 (0.65–1.11)
No 0.96 (0.63–1.48) 1.24 (0.75–2.05) 0.91 (0.35–2.38)
Adjusted serum cholesterol
Yes 1.08 (0.84–1.38) 0.96 (0.72–1.28) 1.20 (0.80–1.78)
No 0.93 (0.68–1.27) 1.00 (0.64–1.57) 0.75 (0.52–1.08)
Adjusted hypertension
Yes 1.09 (0.85–1.40) 0.76 (0.49–1.17) 1.10 (0.68–1.80)
No 0.92 (0.68–1.26) 1.11 (0.83–1.48) 0.77 (0.51–1.15)
Adjusted diabetes
Yes 0.99 (0.78–1.27) 0.82 (0.61–1.09) 0.86 (0.66–1.12)
No 1.01 (0.72–1.40) 1.22 (0.84–1.78) 0.83 (0.35–1.97)
Follow-up duration
More than 10 years 1.01 (0.72–1.40) 1.09 (0.83–1.43) 0.86 (0.49–1.54)
Less than 10 years 0.99 (0.78–1.27) 0.75 (0.48–1.17) 0.87 (0.63–1.21)
Study quality (NOS score)
8 or 9 0.76 (0.50–1.16) 0.93 (0.74–1.17) 0.70 (0.42–1.17)
<8 1.12 (0.90–1.39) 0.98 (0.63–1.54) 1.09 (0.76–1.55)
Total mortality Country
US 1.06 (0.94–1.20) 1.14 (0.97–1.33) 1.16 (1.02–1.33)*
Other 1.08 (0.94–1.24) 1.07 (0.96–1.20) 1.01 (0.87–1.18)
Sample size
>10000 1.06 (0.96–1.16) 1.09 (0.99–1.19) 1.08 (0.98–1.20)
<10000 1.36 (0.91–2.01) 1.25 (0.77–2.03) 1.63 (0.87–3.06)
Adjusted physical activity
Yes 1.10 (0.96–1.26) 1.08 (0.96–1.20) 1.02 (0.87–1.18)
No 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 1.13 (0.97–1.32) 1.16 (1.01–1.33)*
Adjusted serum cholesterol
Yes 1.15 (0.73–1.80) 1.21 (0.79–1.86) 1.28 (0.61–2.65)
No 1.07 (0.97–1.17) 1.09 (0.99–1.19) 1.09 (0.98–1.21)
Adjusted hypertension
Yes 1.08 (0.94–1.24) 1.08 (0.87–1.34) 1.07 (0.83–1.37)
No 1.06 (0.94–1.20) 1.10 (0.99–1.21) 1.10 (0.98–1.23)
Adjusted diabetes
Yes 1.08 (0.93–1.24) 1.07 (0.96–1.20) 1.01 (0.87–1.18)
No 1.07 (0.95–1.20) 1.13 (0.97–1.31) 1.16 (1.02–1.33)*
Follow-up duration
More than 10 years 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 1.09 (0.99–1.20) 1.10 (0.99–1.22)
Less than 10 years 0.99 (0.72–1.37) 1.24 (0.76–2.03) 1.04 (0.76–1.43)
Study quality (NOS score)
8 or 9 1.08 (0.95–1.23) 1.08 (0.97–1.21) 1.03 (0.88–1.20)
<8 1.06 (0.93–1.21) 1.11 (0.95–1.30) 1.15 (1.00–1.31)*