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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the included studies

From: Combination therapy of varenicline with nicotine replacement therapy is better than varenicline alone: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Source Participants Mean age Male % FTNDa Location Jadad score Intervention Early outcome Late outcome
Hajek [10] Active: 58 44.5 66.7 % 4.9 London, UK, 1 center 4 15 mg/16 hours nicotine patch, started on TQD, continued to 4th week 1-4 week continuous abstinence Not available
Placebo: 59 Varenicline 1 week before TQD, titrated to 2 mg/day, continued to 12th week
Total: 117
Koegelenberg [9] Active: 216 46.3 38.3 % 4.5 South Africa, 7 centers 5 15 mg/16 hours nicotine patch, started 2 weeks before TQD, continued to 12th week. 9-12 week continuous abstinence 9-24 week continuous abstinence
Placebo:219 Varenicline 1 week before TQD, titrated to 2 mg/day, continued to 12th week, tapered on the 13th week
Total: 435
Ramon [11] Active: 170 45.2 57.8 % 6.5 Barcelona, Spain, 1 center 5 21 mg/24 hours nicotine patch, started on TQD, continued to 12th week 2-12 week continuous abstinence 2-24 week continuous abstinence
Placebo:171 Varenicline 1 week before TQD, titrated to 2 mg/day, continued to 12th week
Total: 341
  1. FTND, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; TQD, target quit date
  2. aranging from 0 to 10, a higher score denotes greater dependence