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Table 3 Effect of age, sex and education on multimorbidity by country: Odds ratios in univariable, multivariable analysis

From: Multimorbidity and the inequalities of global ageing: a cross-sectional study of 28 countries using the World Health Surveys

  Age (OR) 18–49 as reference Sex (OR) Male as reference Education (OR) primary school as reference Education (AOR)
  50 - 64 65+ < primary Secondary higher < primary secondary higher
Burkina Faso 2.2* 3.0* 0.7*** 1.1 0.5 1.1 0.9 0.5 1.1
Bangladesh 4.1* 4.9* 0.9 1.1 0.7 0.4*** 0.8 0.7 0.4***
Bosnia & Herz 5.7* 18.7* 0.4*** 3.0** 0.6 $ 1.0 1.0 $
Brazil 3.1* 4.4* 0.5* 1.6* 0.6* 0.8 1.2 0.8*** 0.8
Czech Republic 3.7* 18.1 0.6 2.3 0.3*** 0.4 1.3 0.7 0.7
Dominican Republic 4.0* 4.8* 0.3* 2.0** 0.7 0.9 1.3 0.6 0.8
Estonia 2.6* 8.0* 0.6** 1.6 0.8 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.9
Georgia 4.2* 8.8* 0.6* 1.9 0.7 0.8 2.0 2.3 2.9
Ghana 2.2* 3.5* 0.6** 1.2 3.0 1.2 0.9 0.3 1.2
Hungary 4.6* 5.6* 0.5* 2.9 0.4* 0.2*** 3.4*** 0.8 0.5***
Kazakhstan 7.4* 54.2* 0.5* 0.3 0.2* 0.1*** 0.5 1.1 0.8
Kenya 1.6* 6.2* 1.0 2.3* 1.7 2.5 1.4 1.8 2.4
Laos 2.7* 2.2* 0.9 1.5 0.5 0.2 1.3 0.5 0.3
Latvia 6.9* 20.0* 0.4** 1.6 0.9 1.0 0.7 1.7 1.3
Malaysia 5.2* 8.2* 0.8 1.8* 0.5* 0.5* 1.1 0.8 0.8
Mauritius 5.6* 7.1* 0.6* 2.8* 0.4* 0.4*** 1.3 0.5* 0.4
Morocco 5.0* 6.8* 0.6*** 1.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.7
Myanmar 1.4* 2.4* 0.5** 0.9 1.4 1.3 0.6 1.5 1.2
Namibia 2.7* 4.3* 0.6** 2.2* 0.7 1.2 1.7*** 0.8 1.4
Nepal 2.9* 0.8* 1.0 1.3* 0.9 1.4 0.9 0.9 1.4
Pakistan 2.7* 4.9* 0.5** 1.4 0.6 1.1 0.9 0.6 1.1
Paraguay 3.0* 4.1* 0.3* 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.1 1.0
Philippines 3.4* 5.2* 0.6* 1.7* 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.3
South Africa 5.3* 8.3* 0.6* 2.4* 0.8 0.5 1.6 1.1 0.7
Spain 5.6* 9.1* 0.6* 1.8* 0.4* 0.2* 1.4*** 0.8*** 0.4**
Sri Lanka 5.9*** 8.8*** 0.7 1.2 0.5*** 0.3 0.9 0.9 0.5
Ukraine 6.4*** 13.7*** 0.4*** 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.6 1.4 1.3
Uruguay 3.3*** 4.8*** 0.5*** 2.0** 0.8 0.7 1.4 1.0 0.9
  1. *p-value *** < 0.05; ** < 0.01; * <0.001; (OR) Unadjusted odds ratio; (AOR) Adjusted odds ratios in multivariable analysis: all countries adjusted for age and sex. $ indicates no observations within the category. For Bosnia & Herzegovina the categories of secondary and higher education were combined for both univariable and multivariable analyses