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Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics of participating farm, village, and slum households from the Los Rios region, Chile (2010–2012)

From: Protective practices against zoonotic infections among rural and slum communities from South Central Chile

  All households (n = 422) Small village households (n = 134) Farm households (n = 146) Marginalized urban households (n = 142) P-value
  n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Income levela      
≤ $350 USD per month 263 (62.3) 78 (58.2) 74 (50.7) 111 (78.2) <0.01
>$350 USD per month 159 (37.7) 56 (41.8) 72 (49.3) 31 (21.8)
Head of household educationa      
< High school 311 (73.7) 95 (70.9) 106 (72.6) 110 (77.5) 0.43
High school or greater 111 (26.3) 39 (29.1) 40 (27.4) 32 (22.5)
Sex head of householda      
Male 159 (37.7) 54 (40.3) 76 (52.1) 29 (20.4) <0.01
Female 263 (62.3) 80 (59.7) 70 (47.9) 113 (79.6)
Age head of householda      
Mean (range) 45.6 (17–87) 48.6 (19–85) 51.5 (18–87) 36.7 (17–77) <0.01
Any children in the householda      
Yes 285 (67.5) 78 (58.2) 95 (65.0) 112 (78.9) <0.01
No 137 (32.5) 56 (41.8) 51 (35.0) 30 (21.1)
Number of people in the householda      
Mean (range) 4.2 (1–12) 4.1 (1–12) 4.4 (2–12) 4.1 (1–11) 0.18
Species diversitya      
Mean (range) 2.7 (0–7) 2.7 (0–7) 4.0 (0–7) 1.3 (0–3) <0.01
Household owns dogs      
Yes 345 (81.8) 113 (84.3) 134 (91.8) 98 (69.0) <0.01
No 77 (18.2) 21 (15.7) 12 (8.2) 44 (31.0)
Household owns cats      
Yes 235 (55.7) 77 (57.5) 87 (59.6) 71 (50.0) 0.23
No 187 (44.3) 57 (42.5) 59 (40.4) 71 (50.0)
Household owns livestock      
Yes 195 (46.2) 61 (45.5) 131 (89.7) 3 (2.1) <0.01
No 262 (53.8) 73 (54.5) 15 (10.3) 139 (97.9)
Household has a garden      
Yes 242 (57.3) 91 (67.9) 122 (83.6) 29 (20.4) <0.01
No 180 (42.7) 43 (32.1) 24 (16.4) 113 (79.6)
Type of house      
Shack/hut 123 (29.1) 3 (2.2) 2 (1.4) 118 (83.1) <0.01
House 299 (70.9) 131 (97.8) 144 (98.6) 24 (16.9)
Condition of house      
Good 349 (82.7) 116 (86.6) 132 (90.4) 101 (71.1) <0.01
Floors, walls, and/or roof deteriorated 73 (17.3) 18 (13.4) 14 (9.6) 41 (28.9)
Drinking water source      
Community or household tap 311 (73.7) 121 (90.3) 49 (33.6) 141 (99.3) <0.01
Well 68 (16.1) 3 (2.2) 65 (44.5) 0
Natural water source 43 (10.2) 10 (7.5) 32 (21.9) 1 (0.7)
Human waste disposal      
Septic tank/system 232 (55.0) 108 (80.6) 85 (58.2) 39 (27.5) <0.01
Latrine 110 (26.0) 21 (15.7) 50 (34.2) 39 (27.5)
None/Outhouse 80 (19.0) 5 (3.7) 11 (7.5) 64 (45.0)
Garbage removed by truck      
Yes 363 (86.0) 119 (88.8) 109 (74.7) 135 (95.1) <0.01
No 59 (14.0) 15 (11.2) 37 (27.2) 7 (4.9)
Number of rodent signsa      
Mean (range) 1.7 (0–5) 1.6 (0–4) 2.0 (0–5) 1.5 (0–5) <0.01
Survey season      
Summer (January–April) 161 (38.2) 63 (47.0) 65 (44.5) 33 (23.2) <0.01
Spring (September–December) 261 (61.8) 71 (53.0) 81 (55.5) 109 (76.8)
  1. aUsed as independent variables in regression analyses for participation in protective practices against zoonotic disease transmission